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A new surface wave is introduced, the cosine-Gauss beam, which does not diffract while it propagates in a straight line and tightly bound to the metallic surface for distances up to 80 μm. The generation of this highly localized wave is shown to be straightforward and highly controllable, with varying degrees of transverse confinement and directionality, by(More)
Light can be coupled into propagating electromagnetic surface waves at a metal-dielectric interface known as surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs). This process has traditionally faced challenges in the polarization sensitivity of the coupling efficiency and in controlling the directionality of the SPPs. We designed and demonstrated plasmonic couplers that(More)
Metallic components such as plasmonic gratings and plasmonic lenses are routinely used to convert free-space beams into propagating surface plasmon polaritons and vice versa. This generation of couplers handles relatively simple light beams, such as plane waves or Gaussian beams. Here we present a powerful generalization of this strategy to more complex(More)
We report a new type of holographic interface, which is able to manipulate the three fundamental properties of light (phase, amplitude, and polarization) over a broad wavelength range. The design strategy relies on replacing the large openings of conventional holograms by arrays of subwavelength apertures, oriented to locally select a particular state of(More)
Class IIa histone deacetylases (HDACs) and myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2) proteins compose a signaling module that orchestrates lineage specification during embryogenesis. We show here that this module also regulates the generation of mouse induced pluripotent stem cells by defined transcription factors. Class IIa HDACs and MEF2 proteins rise steadily(More)
We performed argon and krypton laser photocoagulation of the retina and ciliary body on rabbit and monkey eyes using an exolaser probe. Clinically, transscleral retinal lesions produced a white circumscribed reaction. Histologically, we observed necrosis of the retina and choroid. Chronic lesions showed disorganization of the retina and formation of(More)
This paper presents the APA-ANTI-DDoS (aggregate-based protocol analysis anti-DDoS) model to detect and defend the DDoS attack. APA-ANTI-DDoS model contains the abnormal traffic aggregate module, the protocol analysis module and the traffic processing module. The abnormal traffic aggregate module classifies the network traffic into normal traffic and the(More)
Metasurfaces are promising two-dimensional metamaterials that are engineered to provide unique properties or functionalities absent in naturally occurring homogeneous surfaces. Here, we report a type of metasurface for tailored reconstruction of surface plasmon waves from light. The design is based on an array of slit antennas arranged in a way that it(More)
Phase-only elements are generally more desirable than complex-amplitude-modulated elements not only because of the higher diffraction efficiency but the readier implementation and fabrication. A novel iterative algorithm is proposed for generating multiple helical modes by a single phase-only element. A superposition of four helical modes is demonstrated(More)