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Specific members of the intestinal microbiota dramatically affect inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in mice. In humans, however, identifying bacteria that preferentially affect disease susceptibility and severity remains a major challenge. Here, we used flow-cytometry-based bacterial cell sorting and 16S sequencing to characterize taxa-specific coating of(More)
BACKGROUND Crohn's disease (CD) has the highest prevalence among individuals of Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) descent compared to non-Jewish Caucasian populations (NJ). We evaluated a set of well-established CD-susceptibility variants to determine if they can explain the increased CD risk in the AJ population. METHODS We recruited 369 AJ CD patients and 503 AJ(More)
Infection of human dendritic cells (DCs) by negative-strand RNA viruses, such as Newcastle disease virus, leads to the induction of the IFNbeta gene, IFNB1, through the activation of the RNA helicase RIG-I, which is encoded by DDX58. Expression levels of IFNB1 and DDX58 in infected DCs showed positive correlations at the population and the single-cell(More)
Currently, killed-virus and modified-live PRRSV vaccines are used to control porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome disease (PRRS). However, very limited efficacy of killed-virus vaccines and serious safety concerns for modified-live virus vaccines demand the development of novel PRRSV vaccines. In this report, we investigated the possibility of(More)
OBJECTIVES This study was aimed to assess the diversity of the meconium microbiome and determine if the bacterial community is affected by maternal diabetes status. METHODS The first intestinal discharge (meconium) was collected from 23 newborns stratified by maternal diabetes status: 4 mothers had pre-gestational type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) including(More)
Among the best characterized of the transcription factors are the b/HLH/z proteins: USF, Max, Myc, and Mad. These proteins bind to the DNA E-box, a six base pair sequence, CACGTG. Max and Myc form a heterodimer that has strong oncogenic potential but can also repress transcription, while Mad and Max form a heterodimer that acts as a transcription repressor.(More)
In eukaryotes, a key step in the initiation of translation is the binding of the eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) to the cap structure of the mRNA. Subsequent recruitment of several components, including the small ribosomal subunit, is thought to allow migration of initiation complexes and recognition of the initiation codon. Mitogens and cytokines(More)
The induction of interferon beta (IFNB1) is a key event in the antiviral immune response. We studied the role of transcriptional noise in the regulation of the IFNB1 locus in primary cultures of human dendritic cells (DCs), which are important 'first responders' to viral infection. In single cell assays, IFNB1 mRNA expression in virus-infected DCs showed(More)
The Myc-Max-Mad network of proteins activates or represses gene transcription depending on whether the dimerization partner of Max is c-Myc or Mad. To elucidate the physical properties of these protein-protein interactions, fluorescence anisotropy of TRITC-labeled Max was used. The binding affinities and thermodynamics of dimerization of the Max-Max(More)
In the first few hours following Newcastle disease viral infection of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells, the induction of IFNB1 is extremely low and the secreted type I interferon response is below the limits of ELISA assay. However, many interferon-induced genes are activated at this time, for example DDX58 (RIGI), which in response to viral RNA(More)