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Transgenic plants with introduced pest-resistant gene offer an efficient alternative insect control. The novel insect-resistant gene combination, chitinase(chi) and BmkIT(Bmk), containing an insect-specific chitinase gene and a scorpion insect toxin gene was introduced into Brassica napus cultivar via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Fifty-seven(More)
The efficient intracellular drug delivery is an important challenge due to the slow endocytosis and inefficient drug release of traditional delivery vehicles such as symmetrical polymer vesicles, which have the same coronas on both sides of the membrane. Presented in this paper is a noncytotoxic poly(ethylene(More)
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have the capability to initiate tumor, to sustain tumor growth, to maintain the heterogeneity of tumor, and are closely linked to the failure of chemotherapy due to their self-renewal and multilineage differentiation capability with an innate resistance to cytotoxic agents. Herein, we designed and synthesized a novel anti-EpCAM(More)
We have recently achieved efficient cytosolic delivery by using pH-sensitive poly(2-(methacryloyloxy)ethylphosphorylcholine)-co-poly(2-(diisopropylamino)ethylmethacrylate) (PMPC-PDPA) diblock copolymers that self-assemble to form vesicles, known as polymersomes, in aqueous solution. It is particularly noteworthy that these diblock copolymers form stable(More)
Highly biocompatible pH-sensitive diblock copolymer vesicles were prepared from the self-assembly of a biocompatible zwitterionic copolymer, poly[2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl phosphorylcholine-block-2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl methacrylate], PMPC-b-PDPA. Vesicle formation occurred spontaneously by adjusting the solution pH from pH 2 to above 6, with the(More)
We consider the problem of scheduling a set of chains on m > 1 identical processors with the objectives of minimizing the makespan and the mean flow time. We show that finding a nonpreemptive schedule with the minimum makespan is strongly NP-hard for each fixed m > 1, answering the open question of whether this problem is strongly NP-hard for trees. We also(More)