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Retinoid X receptors (RXRs) are nuclear receptors that can activate transcription as homodimers or as obligate heterodimeric partners of other nuclear receptors. While the crystal structures of the RXR ligand-binding domains (LBD) have been previously determined, the dynamics of activation is less well characterized at an atomic level. To probe the effect(More)
BACKGROUND NOD2 single nucleotide polymorphisms have been associated with increased risk of ileal Crohn's disease (CD). This exploratory study was conducted to compare ileal mucosal gene expression in CD patients with and without NOD2 risk alleles. METHODS Ileal samples were prospectively collected from 18 nonsmoking CD patients not treated with(More)
Cellular retinol-binding protein II (CRBP II) is a member of the cellular retinol-binding protein family, which is expressed primarily in the small intestine. To investigate the physiological role of CRBP II, the gene encoding CRBP II was inactivated. The saturable component of intestinal retinol uptake is impaired in CRBP II(-/-) mice. The knockout mice,(More)
The C-terminal activation function-2 (AF-2) helix plays a crucial role in retinoid X receptor alpha (RXRalpha)-mediated gene expression. Here, we report a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) study of the RXRalpha ligand-binding domain complexed with 9-cis-retinoic acid and a glucocorticoid receptor-interacting protein 1 peptide. The AF-2 helix and most of the(More)
BACKGROUND/AIMS Expression of the transcriptional co-regulator tis7 is markedly increased in the adaptive small intestine in a mouse model of short bowel syndrome. Transgenic mice with enterocytic overexpression of tis7 (tis7tg) have accelerated triglyceride absorption, with increased adiposity yet reduced skeletal muscle mass. To further explore this(More)
Cellular retinol-binding protein I (CRBP I) and cellular retinol-binding protein II (CRBP II) are closely homologous proteins that play distinct roles in the maintenance of vitamin A homeostasis. The solution structure and dynamics of CRBP I and CRBP II were compared by multidimensional NMR techniques. These studies indicated that differences in the mean(More)
Interactions between the epithelium and surrounding mesenchyme/stroma play an important role in normal gut morphogenesis, the epithelial response to injury, and epithelial carcinogenesis. The tumor microenvironment, composed of stromal cells including myofibroblasts and immune cells, regulates tumor growth and the cancer stem cell niche. Deletion of(More)
The effect of retinoid X receptor (RXR) antagonists on the conformational exchange of the RXR ligand-binding domain (LBD) remains poorly characterized. To address this question, we used nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to compare the chemical shift perturbations induced by RXR antagonists and agonists on the RXRalpha LBD when partnered with itself as(More)
After loss of intestinal surface area, the remaining bowel undergoes a morphometric and functional adaptive response. Enterocytic expression of the transcriptional coregulator tetradecanoyl phorbol acetate induced sequence 7 (Tis7) is markedly increased in a murine model of intestinal adaptation. Mice overexpressing Tis7 in intestine have greater(More)
Effective therapies are limited for patients with parenteral nutrition-dependent short bowel syndrome. We previously showed that intestinal expression of the transcriptional coregulator tetradecanoyl phorbol acetate-induced sequence 7 (tis7) is markedly increased during the adaptive response following massive small bowel resection and tis7 plays a role in(More)