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Color descriptors are among the most important features used in image analysis and retrieval. Due to its compact representation and low complexity, direct histogram comparison is a commonly used technique for measuring the color similarity. However, it has many serious drawbacks, including a high degree of dependency on color codebook design, sensitivity to(More)
In this paper we describe a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) based writer independent handwriting recognition system. A combination of signal normalization preprocessing and the use of invariant features makes the system robust with respect to variability among di!erent writers as well as di!erent writing environments and ink collection mechanisms. A combination(More)
We propose a perceptually based system for pattern retrieval and matching. The central idea is that similarity judgment has to be modeled along perceptual dimensions. Hence, we detect basic visual categories that people use in their judgment of similarity, and design a computational model that accepts patterns as input and, depending on the query, produces(More)
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been widely used as flame retardants. The structurally related hydroxylated PBDEs (OH-PBDEs) and methoxylated PBDEs (MeO-PBDEs) occur in precipitation, surface water, wildlife, and humans. The formation of OH-PBDEs in wildlife and humans is of considerable concern due to their greater toxicities relative to PBDEs(More)
The quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (Q-RT-PCR) technique has been increasingly used in endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) research. Usually, an appropriate endogenous control gene is critical for Q-RT-PCR to normalize the errors and sample-to-sample variations that occur in the course of tissue collection, RNA(More)
The antibiotic-resistance characteristics of bacterial strains in antibiotic production wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) that contain high concentrations of antibiotics are unknown, as are the environmental effects of the discharge of wastewater from such facilities. In this study, 417 strains were individually isolated from the effluent of a WWTP that(More)
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are of great environmental concern due to the exponential increase of the concentrations in the environment, especially in high trophic level organisms, and the trophodynamics of these chemicals in aquatic food webs is an important criterion for assessing their ecological risk. This study analyzed 13 PBDEs in the(More)
The anadromous Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis) is endangered and listed among the first class of protected animals in China. The possible causes for the decline of this species are the effects of synthetic chemicals, and loss of critical habitat. Chinese sturgeon in the Yangtze River have accumulated triphenyltin (TPT) to 31-128 ng/g wet weigh (ww) in(More)