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The BLAST programs are widely used tools for searching protein and DNA databases for sequence similarities. For protein comparisons, a variety of definitional, algorithmic and statistical refinements described here permits the execution time of the BLAST programs to be decreased substantially while enhancing their sensitivity to weak similarities. A new(More)
A 2.91-billion base pair (bp) consensus sequence of the euchromatic portion of the human genome was generated by the whole-genome shotgun sequencing method. The 14.8-billion bp DNA sequence was generated over 9 months from 27,271,853 high-quality sequence reads (5.11-fold coverage of the genome) from both ends of plasmid clones made from the DNA of five(More)
Variation in the CYP3A enzymes, which act in drug metabolism, influences circulating steroid levels and responses to half of all oxidatively metabolized drugs. CYP3A activity is the sum activity of the family of CYP3A genes, including CYP3A5, which is polymorphically expressed at high levels in a minority of Americans of European descent and Europeans(More)
Rice (Oryza sativa), a major staple food, is usually milled to remove the oil-rich aleurone layer that turns rancid upon storage, especially in tropical areas. The remaining edible part of rice grains, the endosperm, lacks several essential nutrients, such as provitamin A. Thus, predominant rice consumption promotes vitamin A deficiency, a serious public(More)
Leaves of maize (Zea mays L.) seedlings were supplied with different concentrations of abscisic acid (ABA). Its effects on the levels of superoxide radical (O(2)(-)), hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and the content of catalytic Fe, the activities of several antioxidative enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and(More)
Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) has been traditionally viewed as a toxic gas. It is also, however, endogenously generated from cysteine metabolism. We attempted to assess the physiological role of H(2)S in the regulation of vascular contractility, the modulation of H(2)S production in vascular tissues, and the underlying mechanisms. Intravenous bolus injection of(More)
Organisms encounter a wide range of foreign compounds--or 'xenobiotics'--with potentially harmful consequences. The cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes metabolize xenobiotics and thus are a primary defence against these compounds. Increased expression of specific CYP genes in response to particular xenobiotics is a central component of this defence, although such(More)
Techniques which identify hapten-specific B cells in tissues have been used to determine the sites of B cell activation in rat spleens in response to T cell-dependent (TD) antigens and T cell-independent type-1 (TI-1) antigens. Surface-associated hapten binding by specific memory B cells and B blasts was distinguished from the strong cytoplasmic hapten(More)
Poly(adenosine 5'-diphosphoribose) synthetase (PARS) is a nuclear enzyme which, when activated by DNA strand breaks, adds up to 100 adenosine 5'-diphosphoribose (ADP-ribose) units to nuclear proteins such as histones and PARS itself. This activation can lead to cell death through depletion of beta-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (the source of ADP-ribose)(More)
Somatic inactivation of PTEN occurs in different human tumors including glioblastoma, endometrial carcinoma and prostate carcinoma. Germline mutations in PTEN result in a range of phenotypic abnormalities that occur with variable penetrance, including neurological features such as macrocephaly, seizures, ataxia and Lhermitte-Duclos disease (also described(More)