Jianxun Lu

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Cytochrome c oxidase contributes to the transmembrane proton gradient by removing two protons from the high-pH side of the membrane each time the binuclear center active site is reduced. One proton goes to the binuclear center, whereas the other is pumped to the low-pH periplasmic space. Glutamate 286 (Glu286) has been proposed to serve as a transiently(More)
Membrane proteins use the energy of light or high energy substrates to build a transmembrane proton gradient through a series of reactions leading to proton release into the lower pH compartment (P-side) and proton uptake from the higher pH compartment (N-side). This review considers how the proton affinity of the substrates, cofactors and amino acids are(More)
Cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) uses the energy released by reduction of O2 to H2O to drive eight charges from the high pH to low pH side of the membrane, increasing the electrochemical gradient. Four electrons and protons are used for chemistry, while four more protons are pumped. Proton pumping requires that residues on a pathway change proton affinity through(More)
A new high-frequency (HF) radio prototype based on dynamic spectrum anti-jamming (DSAJ) technology was recently developed. DSAJ applies the opportunistic spectrum access concept of cognitive radio to the anti-jamming communications. Making use of the properties that there are many “spectrum holes” within HF band where no jamming exists or the(More)
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