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Soybean (Glycine max) is one of the most important crop plants for seed protein and oil content, and for its capacity to fix atmospheric nitrogen through symbioses with soil-borne microorganisms. We sequenced the 1.1-gigabase genome by a whole-genome shotgun approach and integrated it with physical and high-density genetic maps to create a chromosome-scale(More)
BACKGROUND Transposable elements are the most abundant components of all characterized genomes of higher eukaryotes. It has been documented that these elements not only contribute to the shaping and reshaping of their host genomes, but also play significant roles in regulating gene expression, altering gene function, and creating new genes. Thus, complete(More)
Polyploidization has provided much genetic variation for plant adaptive evolution, but the mechanisms by which the molecular evolution of polyploid genomes establishes genetic architecture underlying species differentiation are unclear. Brassica is an ideal model to increase knowledge of polyploid evolution. Here we describe a draft genome sequence of(More)
Data from cytological and genetic mapping studies suggest that maize arose as a tetraploid. Two previous studies investigating the most likely mode of maize origin arrived at different conclusions. Gaut and Doebley proposed a segmental allotetraploid origin of the maize genome and estimated that the two maize progenitors diverged at 20.5 million years ago(More)
Theobroma cacao L. cultivar Matina 1-6 belongs to the most cultivated cacao type. The availability of its genome sequence and methods for identifying genes responsible for important cacao traits will aid cacao researchers and breeders. We describe the sequencing and assembly of the genome of Theobroma cacao L. cultivar Matina 1-6. The genome of the Matina(More)
Understanding genome and chromosome evolution is important for understanding genetic inheritance and evolution. Universal events comprising DNA replication, transcription, repair, mobile genetic element transposition, chromosome rearrangements, mitosis, and meiosis underlie inheritance and variation of living organisms. Although the genome of a species as a(More)
Transposable elements (TEs), particularly, long terminal repeat retrotransposons (LTR-RTs), are the most abundant DNA components in all plant species that have been investigated, and are largely responsible for plant genome size variation. Although plant genomes have experienced periodic proliferation and/or recent burst of LTRretrotransposons, the majority(More)
Long terminal repeat retrotransposons (LTR-RTs) are the major DNA components in flowering plants. Most LTR-RTs contain dinucleotides 'TG' and 'CA' at the ends of the two LTRs. Here we report the structure, evolution, and propensity of a tomato atypical retrotransposon element (TARE1) with both LTRs starting as 'TA'. This family is also characterized by high(More)
Loss of seed-coat impermeability was essential in the domestication of many leguminous crops to promote the production of their highly nutritious seeds. Here we show that seed-coat impermeability in wild soybean is controlled by a single gene, GmHs1-1, which encodes a calcineurin-like metallophosphoesterase transmembrane protein. GmHs1-1 is primarily(More)
The radioresistance of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) remains an obstacle for the effective radiotherapy of ESCC. This study aimed to investigate the radiosensitization of ESCC by signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) inhibitor stattic. ECA109, TE13, and KYSE150 cell lines were exposed to hypoxia and treated with stattic or(More)