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We review the status of solitons in superstring theory, with a view to understanding the strong coupling regime. These solitonic solutions are non-singular field configurations which solve the empty-space low-energy field equations (generalized, whenever possible, to all orders in α′), carry a non-vanishing topological “magnetic” charge and are stabilized(More)
Alterations in oxidative phosphorylation resulting from mitochondrial dysfunction have long been hypothesized to be involved in tumorigenesis. Mitochondria have recently been shown to play an important role in regulating both programmed cell death and cell proliferation. Furthermore, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations have been found in various cancer(More)
In this report, we investigated the frequency and spectrum of mitochondrial 12S rRNA variants in a large cohort of 1642 Han Chinese pediatric subjects with aminoglycoside-induced and nonsyndromic hearing loss. Mutational analysis of 12S rRNA gene in these subjects identified 68 (54 known and 14 novel) variants. The frequencies of known 1555A>G and 1494C>T(More)
Qualitative and quantitative changes in human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) have been implicated in various cancer types. A 4,977 bp deletion in the major arch of the mitochondrial genome is one of the most common mutations associated with a variety of human diseases and aging. We conducted a comprehensive study on clinical features and mtDNA of 104 colorectal(More)
BACKGROUND A high anion gap in diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) suggests that some unmeasured anions must contribute to the generation of the anion gap. We investigated the contribution of D-lactate to the anion gap in DKA. METHODS Diabetic patients with and without DKA and high anion gap were recruited. Plasma D-lactate was quantified by HPLC. Plasma(More)
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups and single nucleotide polymorphisms (mtSNP) have been shown to play a role in various human conditions including aging and some neurodegenerative diseases, metabolic diseases and cancer. To investigate whether mtDNA haplogroups contribute to the occurrence of cancer in a specific Chinese population, we have carried out(More)
Preparation of heteroduplexes in large quantities with high purity is essential for the measurement of DNA mismatch repair (MMR) activity. Here we report a rapid, less labor-intensive method for the preparation of a heteroduplex plasmid that expresses the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) if the mismatch is repaired correctly. The method involves(More)
The human mitochondrial 12S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) A1555G mutation has been associated with aminoglycoside-induced and nonsyndromic deafness in many families worldwide. Our previous investigation revealed that the A1555G mutation is a primary factor underlying the development of deafness but is not sufficient to produce a deafness phenotype. However, it has(More)
Nicotinic acid (niacin) has been widely used as a favorable lipid-lowering drug for several decades, and the orphan G protein-coupled receptor GPR109A has been identified to be a receptor for niacin. Mechanistic investigations have shown that as a G(i)-coupled receptor, GPR109A inhibits adenylate cyclase activity upon niacin activation, thereby inhibiting(More)
Molecular epidemiological studies have shown that gene polymorphisms of vitamin D receptor (VDR) are associated with prostate cancer risks. However, previous results from many molecular studies remain inconsistent. Blood samples were collected from 122 prostate cancer patients and 130 age-matched control subjects in the Han population of Southern China. The(More)