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One cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is mutation in ubiquitously expressed copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1), but the mechanism of toxicity to motor neurons is unknown. Multiple disease-causing mutants, but not wild-type SOD1, are now demonstrated to be recruited to mitochondria, but only in affected tissues. This is independent of the(More)
Endocytic vesicle formation is a complex process that couples sequential protein recruitment and lipid modifications with dramatic shape transformations of the plasma membrane. Although individual molecular players have been studied intensively, how they all fit into a coherent picture of endocytosis remains unclear. That is, how the proper temporal and(More)
Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) binds to cells through interactions of viral glycoproteins gB and gC with heparan sulfate chains on cell surface proteoglycans. This binding is not sufficient for viral entry, which requires fusion between the viral envelope and cell membrane. Here, we show that heparan sulfate modified by a subset of the multiple(More)
The structure of the pore region of the alpha subunit of the bovine rod cyclic nucleotide-gated channel was probed using cysteine-scanning mutagenesis and hydrophilic sulfhydryl-reactive methanethiosulfonate (MTS) reagents. A region homologous to the pore helix in the X-ray crystal structure of the KcsA K(+) channel showed a helical pattern of reactivity(More)
A record from Wanxiang Cave, China, characterizes Asian Monsoon (AM) history over the past 1810 years. The summer monsoon correlates with solar variability, Northern Hemisphere and Chinese temperature, Alpine glacial retreat, and Chinese cultural changes. It was generally strong during Europe's Medieval Warm Period and weak during Europe's Little Ice Age,(More)
To ascertain the involvement of human chromosome 3p and its established critical TSG regions in various epithelial malignancies, 21 polymorphic and 2 nonpolymorphic 3p markers were allelotyped in nonpapillary RCC, NSCLC, CC and BC from a total of 184 patients. LOH was observed with high frequency in all types of cancer studied: RCC (52/57, 91%), BC (41/51,(More)
Transgenic overexpression of Cu(+2)/Zn(+2) superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) harboring an amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-linked familial genetic mutation (SOD1(G93A)) in a Sprague-Dawley rat results in ALS-like motor neuron disease. Motor neuron disease in these rats depended on high levels of mutant SOD1 expression, increasing from 8-fold over endogenous(More)
Copper-mediated oxidative damage is proposed to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1)-linked familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS). We tested this hypothesis by ablating the gene encoding the copper chaperone for SOD1 (CCS) in a series of FALS-linked SOD1 mutant mice. Metabolic 64Cu labeling in SOD1-mutant(More)
The large number of olfactory receptor genes necessitates high throughput methods to analyze their expression patterns. We have therefore designed a high-density oligonucleotide array containing all known mouse olfactory receptor (OR) and V1R vomeronasal receptor genes. This custom array detected a large number of receptor genes, demonstrating specific(More)
A family of protein tyrosine phosphatases enriched within the central nervous system called striatal enriched phosphatase (STEP) has been implicated in the regulation of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor. STEP(61), a membrane-associated isoform located in the postsynaptic densities (PSDs) of striatal neurons, contains two transmembrane domains, two(More)