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Isolation of intact, functional total RNA from blue-grained wheat endosperms containing high levels of starches, polysaccharides, and flavonoids was extremely difficult using traditional methods. We describe here a modified SDS/phenol method that can be used to isolate total RNA from blue-grained wheat endosperms. This method solved the problems of RNA(More)
Growth regulating factors (GRFs) have been shown to play important roles in plant growth and development. GRF genes represent a large multigene family in plants. Recently, genome-wide structural and evolutionary analyses of the GRF gene families in Arabidopsis, rice, and maize have been reported. Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis) is one of(More)
Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis) is a common and economically important crop in Asia. Specific targets of plant breeding programs for cabbage have been improvement in yield, resistance to environment stresses, and nutrition quality by means of genetic manipulation. To obtain information on yield improvement applicable for the genetic(More)
In contrast to arsenic (As) poisoning caused by naturally occurring inorganic arsenic-contaminated water consumption, coal arsenic poisoning (CAP) induced by elevated arsenic exposure from coal combustion has rarely been reported. In this study, the concentrations and distributions of urinary arsenic metabolites in 57 volunteers (36 subjects with skin(More)
Spectral unmixing is an important technique in hyperspectral image exploitation. It comprises the extraction of a set of pure spectral signatures (called endmembers in hyperspectral jargon) and their corresponding fractional abundances in each pixel of the scene. Over the last few years, many approaches have been proposed to automatically extract(More)
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to provide a new approach to solving the interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy stochastic multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) problems. Design/methodology/approach – To transform the interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy number (IVIFN) into a computational numerical value, a new precision score (P-score) function is(More)
Gfi-1 is a C(2)H(2)-type zinc finger protein that is a transcriptional repressor in vertebrates and has been implicated in control of CYP6D1 expression in house flies (Musca domestica). A 15 bp insert, which disrupts a putative mdGfi-1 binding site in the CYP6D1v1 promoter has been implicated as a cause of increased expression of CYP6D1, and thus(More)
Previous studies have showed that the VQ motif-containing proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa play an important role in plant growth, development, and stress responses. However, little is known about the functions of the VQ genes in Brassica rapa (Chinese cabbage). In this study, we performed genome-wide identification, characterization, and(More)
Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are among the most important markers for population analysis and have been widely used in plant genetic mapping and molecular breeding. Expressed sequence tag-SSR (EST-SSR) markers, located in the coding regions, are potentially more efficient for QTL mapping, gene targeting, and marker-assisted breeding. In this study, we(More)
Cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenases are important in the activation and detoxiWcation of numerous insecticides. In this study, a Drosophila melanogaster Cyp6d4 null mutant was used to determine the role of this P450 in insecticide metabolism. This null mutant was generated by imprecise excision of a mobile P element located upstream to the P450 gene(More)