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Cotinine, a metabolite of nicotine, is widely used to distinguish smokers from nonsmokers in epidemiologic studies and smoking-cessation clinical trials. As the magnitude of secondhand smoke exposure declines because of proportionally fewer smokers and more clean-indoor-air regulations, the optimal cotinine cutpoint with which to distinguish smokers from(More)
We assessed 12 urine metals in tobacco smoke-exposed and not exposed National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey participants. Our analysis included age, race/ethnicity, and poverty status. Gender and racial/ethnic differences in cadmium and lead and creatinine-adjusted and unadjusted data for group comparisons are presented. Smokers' had higher(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine 2000-2005 trends in the reasons Medicare beneficiaries gave for disenrolling from their Medicare Advantage (MA) plans. STUDY DESIGN We used data from 6 consecutive years of Consumer Assessment of Health Plans surveys, which asked about 33 possible reasons for disenrollment, including problems with plan information, out-of-pocket(More)
INTRODUCTION Nationally, about one third of women with breast cancer (BC) are diagnosed at late stage, which might be reduced with greater utilization of BC screening. The purpose of this paper is to examine the predictors of BC mammography use among women with Medicaid, and differences among Medicaid beneficiaries in their propensity to use mammography. (More)
INTRODUCTION Tobacco smoke is a source of exposure to thousands of toxic chemicals including lead, a chemical of longstanding public health concern. We assessed trends in blood lead levels in youths and adults with cotinine-verified tobacco smoke exposure by using 10 years of data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. METHODS(More)
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Sleep disturbances resulting in insufficient sleep have been linked to negative physical, cognitive, and public health outcomes. Despite this, there has yet a study that examines the impact of smoking on sleep in a US based national sample. The current study sought to observe sleep disturbances associated with smoking status. Sleep disturbances in adults(More)
Cotinine, a metabolite of nicotine, is widely used to distinguish smokers from nonsmokers in epidemiologic studies and smoking-cessation clinical trials. As the magnitude of secondhand smoke exposure declines because of proportionally fewer smokers and more clean-indoor-air regulations, the optimal cotinine cutpoint with which to distinguish smokers from(More)
Disenrollment rates from Medicare managed care plans have been reported to the public as an indicator of health plan quality. Previous studies have shown that voluntary disenrollment rates differ among vulnerable subgroups, and that these rates can reflect patient care experiences. We hypothesized that disabled beneficiaries may be affected differently than(More)
Breast cancer screening by mammography has been shown to reduce breast cancer morbidity and mortality. The use of mammography screening though varies by race, ethnicity, and, sociodemographic characteristics. Medicaid is an important source of insurance in the US for low-income beneficiaries, who are disproportionately members of racial or ethnic(More)