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Valyl-tRNA synthetase (ValRS) strictly discriminates the cognate L-valine from the larger L-isoleucine and the isosteric L-threonine by the tRNA-dependent "double sieve" mechanism. In this study, we determined the 2.9 A crystal structure of a complex of Thermus thermophilus ValRS, tRNA(Val), and an analog of the Val-adenylate intermediate. The analog is(More)
Bacterial persister cells constitute a small portion of a culture which is tolerant to killing by lethal doses of bactericidal antibiotics. These phenotypic variants are formed in numerous bacterial species, including those with clinical relevance like the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Although persisters are believed to contribute to(More)
Siderophores are key virulence factors that allow bacteria to grow in iron-restricted environments. The Gram-positive pathogen Staphylococcus aureus is known to produce four siderophores for which genetic and/or structural data are unknown. Here we characterize the gene cluster responsible for producing the prevalent siderophore staphyloferrin A. In(More)
Based on a pharmacophore hypothesis substituted tetramic and tetronic acid 3-carboxamides as well as dihydropyridin-2-one-3-carboxamides were investigated as inhibitors of undecaprenyl pyrophosphate synthase (UPPS) for use as novel antimicrobial agents. Synthesis and structure-activity relationship patterns for this class of compounds are discussed.(More)
A simple, optical density-based assay for inhibitors of the mevalonate-dependent pathway for isoprenoid biosynthesis was developed. The assay uses pathway-sensitized Staphylococcus aureus strains and is fully compatible with high-density screening in a 1536-well format. S. aureus strains were constructed in which genes required for mevalonate-dependent(More)
Coenzyme A (CoA) plays a central and essential role in all living organisms. The pathway leading to CoA biosynthesis has been considered an attractive target for developing new antimicrobial agents with novel mechanisms of action. By using an arabinose-regulated expression system, the essentiality of coaBC, a single gene encoding a bifunctional protein(More)
Undecaprenyl pyrophosphate synthase (UPPS) catalyzes the consecutive condensation of eight molecules of isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) with farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) to generate the C(55) undecaprenyl pyrophosphate (UPP). It has been demonstrated that tetramic acids (TAs) are selective and potent inhibitors of UPPS, but the mode of inhibition was(More)
High-throughput phenotypic screening against the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae revealed a series of triazolopyrimidine-sulfonamide compounds with broad-spectrum antifungal activity, no significant cytotoxicity, and low protein binding. To elucidate the target of this series, we have applied a chemogenomic profiling approach using the S. cerevisiae deletion(More)
Biofilm growth represents one of the most challenging problems associated with Candida infections, largely due to the natural resistance of biofilm to the common antifungal drugs. As elevated expression of heat shock proteins (HSP) promotes Candida yeast-hyphae switch, which is an essential step in biofilm formation, we investigated the expression of hsp(More)
High-throughput screening (HTS) is an integral part of early drug discovery. Herein, we focused on those small molecules in a screening collection that have never shown biological activity despite having been exhaustively tested in HTS assays. These compounds are referred to as 'dark chemical matter' (DCM). We quantified DCM, validated it in quality control(More)