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PURPOSE As a precursor of the potent photosensitizer protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA), was conjugated onto cationic gold nanoparticles (GNPs) to improve the efficacy of photodynamic therapy (PDT). METHODS Cationic GNPs reduced by branched polyethyleneimine and 5-ALA were conjugated onto the cationic GNPs by creating an electrostatic(More)
Reactive power optimization in power system is a typical non-linear optimization problem with characteristics of multi-objective, multi-constrained, non-linear combination and discreteness. Conventional mathematical programming techniques are inadequate and insufficient to the optimal operation of power systems due to the inherent complexity. A solution to(More)
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