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Members of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) family of transcription factors have been shown to control development and differentiation of a variety of cell types. We describe a novel bHLH protein, called capsulin, which is expressed specifically in mesodermally-derived cells that surround the epithelium of the developing gastrointestinal, genitourinary and(More)
Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are currently being discussed as promising therapeutic targets to treat neurodegenerative diseases. However, the role of specific HDACs in cognition and neurodegeneration remains poorly understood. Here, we investigate the function of HDAC6, a class II member of the HDAC superfamily, in the adult mouse brain. We report that mice(More)
BACKGROUND Taxol is one of the most effective chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of patients with breast cancer. Despite impressive clinical responses initially, the majority of patients eventually develop resistance to Taxol. Lactate dehydrogenase-A (LDH-A) is one of the predominant isoforms of LDH expressed in breast tissue, which controls the(More)
Tumor cells at the tumor margin lose epithelial properties and acquire features of mesenchymal cells, a process called epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Recently, features of EMT were shown to be linked to cells with tumor-founding capability, so-called cancer stem cells (CSCs). Inducers of the EMT include several transcription factors, such as(More)
It is well known that ErbB2, a receptor tyrosine kinase, localizes to the plasma membrane. Here we describe a novel observation that ErbB2 also localizes in mitochondria of cancer cells and patient samples. We found that ErbB2 translocates into mitochondria through association with mtHSP70. Additionally, mitochondrial ErbB2 (mtErbB2) negatively regulates(More)
Retinoic acid (RA) is a major chemopreventive agent which exerts strong anti-tumor activity partly by trans-repressing the Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway in some tumor cell lines. However, the definite mechanism of RA trans-repression of the Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway has not been elucidated clearly. In this work, we found that all-trans(More)
Cancer cells typically display altered glucose metabolism characterized by a preference of aerobic glycolysis, known as the Warburg effect, which facilitates cell proliferation. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) and oncoprotein Myc are two prominent transcription factors that drive glycolysis. Previously, we reported that the estrogen-related receptors (ERRs)(More)
Estrogen signaling plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of breast cancer. Because the majority of breast carcinomas express the estrogen receptor ERα, endocrine therapy that impedes estrogen-ER signaling reduces breast cancer mortality and has become a mainstay of breast cancer treatment. However, patients remain at continued risk of relapse for many(More)
The Warburg effect, which reflects cancer cells' preference for aerobic glycolysis over glucose oxidation, contributes to tumor growth, progression and therapy resistance. The restraint on pyruvate flux into mitochondrial oxidative metabolism in cancer cells is in part attributed to the inhibition of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) complex. Src is a prominent(More)
The mitochondria are double membrane-bound organelles found in most eukaryotic cells. They generate most of the cell’s energy supply of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation are critical mechanisms in the regulation of cell signaling networks and are essential for almost all the cellular functions. For many decades,(More)