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In response to numerous pathologic stimuli, the myocardium undergoes a hypertrophic response characterized by increased myocardial cell size and activation of fetal cardiac genes. We show that cardiac hypertrophy is induced by the calcium-dependent phosphatase calcineurin, which dephosphorylates the transcription factor NF-AT3, enabling it to translocate to(More)
Members of the MyoD family of basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors control the formation of all skeletal muscles in vertebrates, but little is known of the molecules or mechanisms that confer unique identities to different types of skeletal muscles. MyoR and capsulin are related bHLH transcription factors expressed in specific facial muscle(More)
BACKGROUND Taxol is one of the most effective chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of patients with breast cancer. Despite impressive clinical responses initially, the majority of patients eventually develop resistance to Taxol. Lactate dehydrogenase-A (LDH-A) is one of the predominant isoforms of LDH expressed in breast tissue, which controls the(More)
Normal cells require adhesion to extracellular matrix for survival. Cell detachment causes a drastic increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) that promotes anoikis. In the present study, we observed that upon detachment from matrix, human mammary epithelial cells strongly upregulate manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD, or SOD2), a principal mitochondrial(More)
Tumor cells at the tumor margin lose epithelial properties and acquire features of mesenchymal cells, a process called epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Recently, features of EMT were shown to be linked to cells with tumor-founding capability, so-called cancer stem cells (CSCs). Inducers of the EMT include several transcription factors, such as(More)
It is well known that ErbB2, a receptor tyrosine kinase, localizes to the plasma membrane. Here we describe a novel observation that ErbB2 also localizes in mitochondria of cancer cells and patient samples. We found that ErbB2 translocates into mitochondria through association with mtHSP70. Additionally, mitochondrial ErbB2 (mtErbB2) negatively regulates(More)
Cancer cells typically display altered glucose metabolism characterized by a preference of aerobic glycolysis, known as the Warburg effect, which facilitates cell proliferation. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) and oncoprotein Myc are two prominent transcription factors that drive glycolysis. Previously, we reported that the estrogen-related receptors (ERRs)(More)
Estrogen signaling plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of breast cancer. Because the majority of breast carcinomas express the estrogen receptor ERα, endocrine therapy that impedes estrogen-ER signaling reduces breast cancer mortality and has become a mainstay of breast cancer treatment. However, patients remain at continued risk of relapse for many(More)
The mitochondria are double membrane-bound organelles found in most eukaryotic cells. They generate most of the cell’s energy supply of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation are critical mechanisms in the regulation of cell signaling networks and are essential for almost all the cellular functions. For many decades,(More)
The effect of mesenchymal stem cell (MSCs)-based therapy on treating acute myocardial infarction (MI) is limited due to poor engraftment and limited regenerative potential. Here we engineered MSCs with integrin-linked kinase (ILK), a pleiotropic protein critically regulating cell survival, proliferation, differentiation, and angiogenesis. We firstly(More)