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MOTIVATION Despite advances in the gene annotation process, the functions of a large portion of gene products remain insufficiently characterized. In addition, the in silico prediction of novel Gene Ontology (GO) annotations for partially characterized gene functions or processes is highly dependent on reverse genetic or functional genomic approaches. To(More)
The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor Olig1 promotes oligodendrocyte maturation and is required for myelin repair. We characterized an Olig1-regulated G protein-coupled receptor, GPR17, whose function is to oppose the action of Olig1. Gpr17 was restricted to oligodendrocyte lineage cells, but was downregulated during the peak period of myelination(More)
Oxidative mechanisms of injury are important in many neurological disorders, including hypoxic-ischemic brain damage. Cerebral palsy after preterm birth is hypothesized to be caused by hypoxic-ischemic injury of developing oligodendrocytes (OLs). Here we examined the developmental sensitivity of OLs to exogenous hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) with stage-specific(More)
Oxidative injury to premyelinating oligodendrocytes (preOLs) in developing white matter has been implicated in the pathogenesis of periventricular leukomalacia, the lesion underlying most cases of cerebral palsy in premature infants. In this study, we investigated the pathways of OL death induced by intracellular glutathione (GSH) depletion. We found that(More)
Due to the large number of putative microRNA gene targets predicted by sequence-alignment databases and the relative low accuracy of such predictions which are conducted independently of biological context by design, systematic experimental identification and validation of every functional microRNA target is currently challenging. Consequently, biological(More)
BACKGROUND Postprandial hyperglycemia is an early defect of type 2 diabetes and one of primary anti-diabetic targets. Treatment of postprandial hyperglycemia can be achieved by inhibiting intestinal α-glucosidase, the key enzyme for oligosaccharide digestion and further glucose absorption. Grape pomace is winemaking byproduct rich in bioactive food(More)
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a TNF family member and potent apoptosis inducer. In contrast to TNF-␣ or Fas ligand, relatively little is known about the signaling events activated by TRAIL. In particular, the initial caspase(s) required for TRAIL-induced apoptosis remains to be determined. Caspase-3-like protease(More)
Periventricular leukomalacia, the predominant pathological lesion underlying cerebral palsy in premature infants, is thought to be the result of hypoxic-ischemic injury to the cerebral white matter. The main cell type injured is the developing oligodendrocyte (OL), which has been shown to be more sensitive than mature OLs to both excitotoxic and oxidative(More)
BACKGROUND Activation of glial cells via toll-like receptors (TLRs) and other intracellular pathogen recognition receptors promotes the release of potentially toxic acute phase reactants such as TNFα and nitric oxide into the extracellular space. As such, prolonged glial activation, as is thought to occur during a persistent viral infection of the CNS, may(More)
Amyloid formation is the pathological hallmark of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). These diseases are marked by extracellular amyloid deposits of islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) in the pancreas and amyloid β (Aβ) in the brain. Since IAPP may enter the brain and disparate amyloids can cross-seed each other to augment amyloid formation, we(More)