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MOTIVATION Despite advances in the gene annotation process, the functions of a large portion of gene products remain insufficiently characterized. In addition, the in silico prediction of novel Gene Ontology (GO) annotations for partially characterized gene functions or processes is highly dependent on reverse genetic or functional genomic approaches. To(More)
The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor Olig1 promotes oligodendrocyte maturation and is required for myelin repair. We characterized an Olig1-regulated G protein-coupled receptor, GPR17, whose function is to oppose the action of Olig1. Gpr17 was restricted to oligodendrocyte lineage cells, but was downregulated during the peak period of myelination(More)
Multiple sclerosis is a chronic demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. Spontaneous remyelination during early disease stages is thought to preserve and partially restore function. However, this process ceases in later stages despite the presence of pre-oligodendrocytes. Cuprizone-induced demyelination is a useful model with which to study the(More)
Oxidative mechanisms of injury are important in many neurological disorders, including hypoxic-ischemic brain damage. Cerebral palsy after preterm birth is hypothesized to be caused by hypoxic-ischemic injury of developing oligodendrocytes (OLs). Here we examined the developmental sensitivity of OLs to exogenous hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) with stage-specific(More)
Oxidative injury to premyelinating oligodendrocytes (preOLs) in developing white matter has been implicated in the pathogenesis of periventricular leukomalacia, the lesion underlying most cases of cerebral palsy in premature infants. In this study, we investigated the pathways of OL death induced by intracellular glutathione (GSH) depletion. We found that(More)
Reactive nitrogen species are thought to be involved in both hypoxic-ischemic and cytokine-induced brain injury, including periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), the major pathological substrate of cerebral palsy in premature infants. PVL appears to be the result of perinatal inflammatory events and hypoxic-ischemic injury to the cerebral white matter. The(More)
Due to the large number of putative microRNA gene targets predicted by sequence-alignment databases and the relative low accuracy of such predictions which are conducted independently of biological context by design, systematic experimental identification and validation of every functional microRNA target is currently challenging. Consequently, biological(More)
The multifunctional large (L) polymerase protein of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) contains enzymatic activities essential for RNA synthesis, including mRNA cap addition and polyadenylation. We previously mapped amino acid residues G1154, T1157, H1227, and R1228, present within conserved region V (CRV) of L, as essential for mRNA cap addition. Here we(More)
BACKGROUND Postprandial hyperglycemia is an early defect of type 2 diabetes and one of primary anti-diabetic targets. Treatment of postprandial hyperglycemia can be achieved by inhibiting intestinal α-glucosidase, the key enzyme for oligosaccharide digestion and further glucose absorption. Grape pomace is winemaking byproduct rich in bioactive food(More)
Periventricular leukomalacia, the predominant pathological lesion underlying cerebral palsy in premature infants, is thought to be the result of hypoxic-ischemic injury to the cerebral white matter. The main cell type injured is the developing oligodendrocyte (OL), which has been shown to be more sensitive than mature OLs to both excitotoxic and oxidative(More)