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Our previous work has demonstrated the isolation of photosystem I (PSI) from spinach using ultrafiltration with a final purity of 84 %. In order to get a higher purity of PSI and more importantly to develop a practical bioseparation process, key physiochemical properties of PSI and their dependence on operational parameters must be assessed. In this study,(More)
BACKGROUND Auditory neural stimulation with pulsed infrared radiation has been proposed as an alternative method to activate the auditory nerves in vivo. Infrared wavelengths from 1800-2150 nm with high water absorption were mainly selected in previous studies. However, few researchers have used the short-wavelength infrared (SWIR) for auditory nerve(More)
Optical neural stimulation in the cochlea has been presented as an alternative technique to the electrical stimulation due to its potential in spatially selectivity enhancement. So far, few studies have selected the near-infrared (NIR) laser in cochlear neural stimulation and limited optical parameter space has been examined. This paper focused on(More)
Passively Q-switched ceramic Nd3+:YAG lasers with ceramic Cr4+:YAG saturable absorbers are demonstrated. When the lasers are pumped by a 1-W cw laser diode, optical-optical efficiency as great as 22% is obtained with Cr4+:YAG of initial transmission ranging from 94% to 79%. The results are similar to those in their crystalline counterparts. The operation of(More)
Research on auditory neural triggering by optical stimulus has been developed as an emerging technique to elicit the auditory neural response, which may provide an alternative method to the cochlear implants. However, most previous studies have been focused on using longer-wavelength near-infrared (>1800 nm) laser. The effect comparison of different laser(More)
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