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Bubbling is an important pathway of methane emissions from wetland ecosystems. However the concentration-based threshold function approach in current biogeochemistry models of methane is not sufficient to represent the complex ebullition process. Here we revise an extant process-based biogeochemistry model, the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model into a(More)
The scheme to propagate correlations between on-line and off-line state variables in atmospheric inversions using the fixed-lag Kalman smoother proposed in Bruhwiler et al. (2005) is explained as a process to impose a balanced constraint on the on-line state variables. It is then extended to the fixed-lag ensemble square root Kalman smoother and fixed-lag(More)
The heavy rail surface defect detection is one of the most important steps in the production and test of heavy rail, which directly affect the overall quality of heavy rail production. According to the characteristics of heavy rail surface defects, uneven brightness and noise, the heavy rail surface defects are detected based on the mathematical morphology(More)
The information of the Molten Iron Ladles (MIL) plays an important role in the reasonable scheduling for Overhead Traveling Crane (OTC) of steelmaking plant. Currently, to locate the MIL by manual recognition is low efficiency and large workload. For this, a method of the MIL location based on number recognition is proposed in this paper. First, the(More)
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions This discussion paper is/has been under review for the journal Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP). Please refer to the corresponding final paper in ACP if available. Abstract Three interval constrained methods, including the interval constrained Kalman smoother, the interval constrained maximum likelihood(More)
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