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Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling plays a central role in transducing extracellular stimuli into intracellular responses, but its role in mediating plant responses to herbivore attack remains largely unexplored. When Manduca sexta larvae attack their host plant, Nicotiana attenuata, the plant's wound response is reconfigured at(More)
The transition from the juvenile to adult phase in plants is controlled by diverse exogenous and endogenous cues such as age, day length, light, nutrients, and temperature. Previous studies have shown that the gradual decline in microRNA156 (miR156) with age promotes the expression of adult traits. However, how age temporally regulates the abundance of(More)
BAK1 is a co-receptor of brassinosteroid (BR) receptor BRI1, and plays a well-characterized role in BR signalling. BAK1 also physically interacts with the flagellin receptor FLS2 and regulates pathogen resistance. The role of BAK1 in mediating Nicotiana attenuata's resistance responses to its specialist herbivore, Manduca sexta, was examined here. A(More)
According to the World Cancer Report, skin cancer constitutes approximately 30% of all newly diagnosed cancers in the world, and solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation (particularly, its UVB component; 290-320 nm) is an established cause of approximately 90% of skin cancers. The available options have proven to be inadequate for the management of skin cancers.(More)
Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a common genetic disease that predisposes 30-50 % of affected individuals to develop plexiform neurofibromas. We found that macrophage infiltration of both mouse and human neurofibromas correlates with disease progression. Macrophages accounted for almost half of neurofibroma cells, leading us to hypothesize that nerve(More)
BACKGROUND Plant cell culture represents an alternative source for producing high-value secondary metabolites including paclitaxel (Taxol®), which is mainly produced in Taxus and has been widely used in cancer chemotherapy. The phytohormone methyl jasmonate (MeJA) can significantly increase the production of paclitaxel, which is induced in plants as a(More)
Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) are aggressive sarcomas without effective therapeutics. Bioinformatics was used to identify potential therapeutic targets. Paired Box (PAX), Eyes Absent (EYA), Dachsund (DACH) and Sine Oculis (SIX) genes, which form a regulatory interactive network in Drosophila, were found to be dysregulated in human MPNST(More)
In a wild tobacco plant, Nicotiana attenuata, two mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), salicylic acid-induced protein kinase (SIPK) and wound-induced protein kinase (WIPK), play central roles in modulating herbivory-induced phytohormone and anti-herbivore secondary metabolites. However, the identities of their upstream MAPK kinases (MAPKKs) were(More)
Defining growth factor requirements for progenitors facilitates their characterization and amplification. We characterize a peripheral nervous system embryonic dorsal root ganglion progenitor population using in vitro clonal sphere-formation assays. Cells differentiate into glial cells, smooth muscle/fibroblast (SM/Fb)-like cells, and neurons. Genetic and(More)
We identified three Nicotiana attenuata mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinases (MAPKKs), NaMEK1, NaSIPKK, and NaNPK2, whose transcript levels were up-regulated in a wild tobacco plant, N. attenuata, after wounding and simulated herbivore attack. A virus-induced gene silencing approach was used to analyze the functions of these three MAPKKs in plant(More)