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Understanding the mechanisms of biospheric feedbacks to climate change is critical to project future climate warming1–3. Although microorganisms catalyse most biosphere processes related to fluxes of greenhouse gases, little is known about the microbial role in regulating future climate change4. Integrated metagenomic and functional analyses of a long-term(More)
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is causally linked to several acquired immune deficiency syndrome-related malignancies, including Kaposi's sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) and a subset of multicentric Castleman's disease. Control of viral lytic replication is essential for KSHV latency, evasion of the host immune system and induction(More)
Lytic replication of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) promotes the progression of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), a dominant malignancy in patients with AIDS. While 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced KSHV reactivation from latency is mediated by the protein kinase C delta and MEK/ERK mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways, we(More)
To determine the reproducibility and quantitation of the amplicon sequencing-based detection approach for analyzing microbial community structure, a total of 24 microbial communities from a long-term global change experimental site were examined. Genomic DNA obtained from each community was used to amplify 16S rRNA genes with two or three barcode tags as(More)
Polysaccharide depolymerase, a polysaccharide hydrolase encoded by bacteriophages (or ‘phages’), can specifically degrade the macromolecule carbohydrates of the host bacterial envelope. This enzyme assists the bacteriophage in adsorbing, invading, and disintegrating the host bacteria. Polysaccharide depolymerase activity continues even within biofilms. This(More)
Mutations correlating phenotypic resistance level with the injectable second-line anti-tuberculosis drugs (SLDs) including kanamycin (KAN), amikacin (AMK), and capreomycin (CAP) remain elusive. A collection of 114 Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates from mainland China was analyzed. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of each strain was(More)
LuxR transcriptional regulator is a key player in Quorum Sensing (QS), coordinates the expression of a variety of genes, including those encoding virulence factors and antibiotics biosynthesis, motility, nodulation, plasmid transfer, bioluminescence, and biofilm formation. The characteristics and roles of this family, especially those of Mycobacterium, are(More)
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play important roles in cancer invasion, angiogenesis, and inflammatory infiltration. Kaposi's sarcoma is a highly disseminated angiogenic tumor of proliferative endothelial cells linked to infection by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV). In this study, we showed that KSHV infection increased the invasiveness of(More)
Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) are inheritable genetic elements of many archaea and bacteria, conferring acquired immunity against invading nucleic acids. CRISPR might be indicative of the bacterial niche adaptation and evolutionary. Mycobacterium is an important genus occupying diverse niches with profound medical and(More)