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The voltage-gated calcium channel Ca(v)1.1 is engaged in the excitation-contraction coupling of skeletal muscles. The Ca(v)1.1 complex consists of the pore-forming subunit α1 and auxiliary subunits α2δ, β, and γ. We report the structure of the rabbit Ca(v)1.1 complex determined by single-particle cryo-electron microscopy. The four homologous repeats of the(More)
The glucose transporter GLUT1 catalyses facilitative diffusion of glucose into erythrocytes and is responsible for glucose supply to the brain and other organs. Dysfunctional mutations may lead to GLUT1 deficiency syndrome, whereas overexpression of GLUT1 is a prognostic indicator for cancer. Despite decades of investigation, the structure of GLUT1 remains(More)
Classifying network traffic according to the applications is important to a broad range of network areas. Compared with the traditional method which classifies traffic using predefined well-known port numbers, the method using application signatures is more accurate. Unfortunately, analyzing signatures and maintaining up-to-date signatures for various(More)
The energy-coupling factor (ECF) transporters constitute a novel family of conserved membrane transporters in prokaryotes that have a similar domain organization to the ATP-binding cassette transporters. Each ECF transporter comprises a pair of cytosolic ATPases (the A and A' components, or EcfA and EcfA'), a membrane-embedded substrate-binding protein (the(More)
Impaired or deficient autophagy is believed to cause or contribute to aging, as well as a number of age-related pathologies. The exact mechanism through which alterations in autophagy induce these various pathologies is not well understood. Here we describe the creation of two in vivo mouse models that allow for the characterization of the alteration in(More)
The goal of data-center networking is to interconnect a large number of server machines with low equipment cost while providing high network capacity and high bisection width. It is well understood that the current practice where servers are connected by a tree hierarchy of network switches cannot meet these requirements. In this paper, we explore a new(More)
The current Internet addressing architecture does not verify the source address of a packet received and forwarded. This causes serious security and accounting problems. Based on the drastically increased IPv6 address space, a "source address validation architecture" (SAVA) is proposed in this paper, which can guarantee that every packet received and(More)
The ryanodine receptors (RyRs) are high-conductance intracellular Ca(2+) channels that play a pivotal role in the excitation-contraction coupling of skeletal and cardiac muscles. RyRs are the largest known ion channels, with a homotetrameric organization and approximately 5,000 residues in each protomer. Here we report the structure of the rabbit RyR1 in(More)
Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) plays a critical role in the Internet inter-domain routing reliability. Invalid routes generated by mis-configurations or forged by malicious attacks may hijack the traffic and devastate the Internet routing system, but it is unlikely that a secure BGP can be deployed in the near future to completely prevent them. Although many(More)