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Tumor cells and the tumor microenvi-ronment can produce immunosuppres-sive factors such as transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) and vascular endothe-lial growth factor (VEGF). These can drive the expansion of regulatory T cells (Tregs) and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC), both of which can reduce or eliminate antitumor immune responses as generated(More)
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