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The structures of dendritic spines and the dendritic tree, key determinants of neuronal function, are regulated by diverse inputs that affect many scaffolding and signaling molecules. Nevertheless, here we show that reduced expression of a single gene results in loss of dendritic spines and a decrease in dendritic complexity. Kalirin, a dual Rho GDP-GTP(More)
Tumor cells and the tumor microenvi-ronment can produce immunosuppres-sive factors such as transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) and vascular endothe-lial growth factor (VEGF). These can drive the expansion of regulatory T cells (Tregs) and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC), both of which can reduce or eliminate antitumor immune responses as generated(More)
East Asia is a major dust source in the world. Mineral dusts in the atmosphere and their interactions with clouds and precipitation have great impacts on regional climate in Asia, where there are large arid and semiarid regions. In this review paper, we summarize the typical transport paths of East Asian dust, which affect regional and global climates, and(More)
This study evaluated whether growing rats were appropriate animal models of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. The 3-month-old male rats were treated with either vehicle or prednisone acetate at 1.5, 3.0, and 6.0 mg/kg/day by oral gavage, respectively. All rats were injected with tetracycline and calcein before sacrificed for the purpose of double in vivo(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIMS Metabolic syndrome (MS) is prevalent in recent years but few data is reported in the rural areas in China. The aim of this study was to examine MS prevalence and its risk factors among women in rural China. METHODS AND RESULTS The Nantong Metabolic Syndrome Study (NMSS), a population based cross-sectional study, was conducted during(More)
This study attempts to propose an improved decision forest (IDF) with an integrated graphical user interface. Based on four gene expression data sets, the IDF not only outperforms the original decision forest, but also is superior or comparable to other state-of-the-art machine learning methods, especially in dealing with high dimensional data. With an(More)
P-Glycoprotein (P-gp) contributes to extruding a structurally, chemically, and pharmacologically diverse range of substrates out of cells. This function may result in the failure of chemotherapy in cancer and influence pharmacokinetic properties of many drugs. Although a great deal of research has been devoted to the investigation of P-gp and its substrate(More)
MOTIVATION The optimization of the primer design is critical for the development of high-throughput SNP genotyping methods. Recently developed statistical models of the SNP-IT primer extension genotyping reaction allow further improvement of primer quality for the assay. RESULTS Here we describe how the statistical models can be used to improve primer(More)
[1] Predicting the influences of dust on atmospheric composition , climate, and human health requires accurate knowledge of dust emissions, but large uncertainties persist in quantifying mineral sources. This study presents a new method for combined use of satellite-measured radiances and inverse modeling to spatially constrain the amount and location of(More)
The effects of natural variability, especially El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) effects, have been the focus of several recent studies on the change of drought patterns with climate change. The interannual relationship between ENSO and the global climate is not stationary and can be modulated by the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). However, the global(More)