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Two field-collected Culex quinquefasciatus colonies were subjected to selection pressure by three strains of Bacillus sphaericus, C3-41, 2362, and IAB59, under laboratory conditions. After 13 and 18 generations of exposure to high concentrations of C3-41 and IAB59, a field-collected low-level-resistant colony developed >144,000- and 46.3-fold resistance to(More)
Expression of a chitinase gene, chiAC, from Bacillus thuringiensis in B. sphaericus 2297 using the binary toxin promoter yielded a recombinant strain that was 4,297-fold more toxic than strain 2297 against resistant Culex quinquefasciatus. These results show that this chitinase can synergize the toxicity of the binary toxin against mosquitoes and thus may(More)
The binding affinities and specificities of six truncated S-layer homology domain (SLH) polypeptides of mosquitocidal Bacillus sphaericus strain C3-41 with the purified cell wall sacculi have been assayed. The results indicated that the SLH polypeptide comprised of amino acids 31 to 210 was responsible for anchoring the S-layer subunits to the rigid cell(More)
Dogs have become one of the most important companion animals in modern society. However, it is estimated that 20% to 40% of owned dogs are obese, suggesting that obesity has become one of the most important canine health problem. In addition, obesity in dogs also leads to type II diabetes. Because the melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) has been shown to be(More)
The mature surface layer (S-layer) protein SlpC of mosquitocidal Bacillus sphaericus C3-41 comprises amino acids 31–1,176 and could recrystallize in vitro. The N-terminal SLH domain is responsible for binding function. Deletion of this part, S-layer proteins could not bind to the cell wall sacculi. To investigate the self-assembly ability of SlpC from B.(More)
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