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Brassinosteroids are a class of growth-promoting regulators that play a key role throughout plant development. Despite their importance, nothing is known of the mechanism of action of these steroid hormones. We describe the identification of 18 Arabidopsis dwarf mutants that are unable to respond to exogenously added brassinosteroid, a phenotype that might(More)
The Arabidopsis BAK1 (BRI1 Associated receptor Kinase 1) was identified by a yeast two-hybrid screen as a specific interactor for BRI1, a critical component of a membrane brassinosteroid (BR) receptor. In yeast, BAK1/BRI1 interaction activates their kinase activities through transphosphorylation. BAK1 and BRI1 share similar gene expression and subcellular(More)
Successful pathogens have evolved strategies to interfere with host immune systems. For example, the ubiquitous plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae injects two sequence-distinct effectors, AvrPto and AvrPtoB, to intercept convergent innate immune responses stimulated by multiple microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs). However, the direct host targets(More)
GSK3/SHAGGY is a highly conserved serine/threonine kinase implicated in many signaling pathways in eukaryotes. Although many GSK3/SHAGGY-like kinases have been identified in plants, little is known about their functions in plant growth and development. Here we show that the Arabidopsis BRASSINOSTEROID-INSENSITIVE 2 (BIN2) gene encodes a GSK3/SHAGGY-like(More)
Brassinosteroids (BRs) are a class of steroid hormones essential for normal growth and development in plants. BR signaling involves the cell-surface receptor BRI1, the glycogen synthase kinase-3-like kinase BIN2 as a negative regulator, and nuclear proteins BZR1 and BZR2/BES1 as positive regulators. The interactions among these components remain unclear.(More)
Plant steroid hormones, known as brassinosteroids (BRs), signal through a plasma membrane localized receptor kinase BRI1. We identified bes1, a semidominant suppressor of bri1, which exhibits constitutive BR response phenotypes including long and bending petioles, curly leaves, accelerated senescence, and constitutive expression of BR-response genes. BES1(More)
Brassinosteroids (BRs) play important roles throughout plant development. Although many genes have been identified that are involved in BR biosynthesis, genetic approaches in Arabidopsis have led to the identification of only one gene, BRI1, that encodes a membrane receptor for BRs. To expand our knowledge of the molecular mechanism(s) of plant steroid(More)
The transition from dormancy to germination in seeds is a key physiological process during the lifecycle of plants. Abscisic acid (ABA) is the sole plant hormone known to maintain seed dormancy; it acts through a gene expression network involving the transcription factor ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE 3 (ABI3). However, whether other phytohormone pathways(More)
Plant steroid hormones, brassinosteroids (BRs), are perceived by the plasma membrane-localized leucine-rich-repeat-receptor kinase BRI1. Based on sequence similarity, we have identified three members of the BRI1 family, named BRL1, BRL2 and BRL3. BRL1 and BRL3, but not BRL2, encode functional BR receptors that bind brassinolide, the most active BR, with(More)