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Pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI) serves as a primary plant defense response against microbial pathogens, with MEKK1, MKK1/MKK2, and MPK4 functioning as a MAP kinase cascade downstream of PAMP receptors. Plant Resistance (R) proteins sense specific pathogen effectors to initiate a second defense mechanism, termed(More)
The Pto gene encodes a serine/threonine kinase that confers resistance to bacterial speck disease in tomato. Using the yeast two-hybrid system, we identified a second serine/threonine kinase, Pto-interacting 1 (Pti1), that physically interacts with Pto. Cross-phosphorylation assays revealed that Pto specifically phosphorylates Pti1 and that Pti1 does not(More)
The intracellular pathogen Listeria monocytogenes escapes from a phagosomal compartment into the cytosol by secreting the pore-forming cytolysin listeriolysin O (LLO). During the proliferation of L. monocytogenes bacteria in the mammalian cell cytosol, the secreted LLO is targeted for degradation by the ubiquitin system. We report here that LLO is a(More)
The tumor suppressor protein p53 may have other roles and functions in addition to its well-documented ability to serve as a sequence-specific transcriptional activator in response to DNA damage. We showed previously that p53 can block the replication of polyomavirus origin-containing DNA (Py ori-DNA) in vitro when p53 binding sites are present on the late(More)
The Pto gene was derived originally from the wíld tomato species Lycopersicon pimpinellifolium and confers resistance to Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato strains expressing the avirulence gene avrPto. The Fen gene is also derived from L. pimpinellifolium and confers sensitivity to the insecticide fenthion. We have now isolated and characterized the al-leles(More)
Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, the causal agent of black rot disease, depends on its type III secretion system (TTSS) to infect cruciferous plants, including Brassica oleracea, B. napus and Arabidopsis. Previous studies on the Arabidopsis-Pseudomonas syringae model pathosystem have indicated that a major function of TTSS from virulent bacteria is to(More)
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