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Pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI) serves as a primary plant defense response against microbial pathogens, with MEKK1, MKK1/MKK2, and MPK4 functioning as a MAP kinase cascade downstream of PAMP receptors. Plant Resistance (R) proteins sense specific pathogen effectors to initiate a second defense mechanism, termed(More)
The Pto gene encodes a serine/threonine kinase that confers resistance to bacterial speck disease in tomato. Using the yeast two-hybrid system, we identified a second serine/threonine kinase, Pto-interacting 1 (Pti1), that physically interacts with Pto. Cross-phosphorylation assays revealed that Pto specifically phosphorylates Pti1 and that Pti1 does not(More)
Soil organic matter (SOM) is a keystone soil property that influences soil biological, chemical, and physical properties important for soil health. Due to the high fraction of carbon within SOM, soil organic C is an important and readily manageable component of the global carbon cycle. Agroecosystem management practices strongly influence SOM content and(More)
The intracellular pathogen Listeria monocytogenes escapes from a phagosomal compartment into the cytosol by secreting the pore-forming cytolysin listeriolysin O (LLO). During the proliferation of L. monocytogenes bacteria in the mammalian cell cytosol, the secreted LLO is targeted for degradation by the ubiquitin system. We report here that LLO is a(More)
The Pto gene was derived originally from the wíld tomato species Lycopersicon pimpinellifolium and confers resistance to Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato strains expressing the avirulence gene avrPto. The Fen gene is also derived from L. pimpinellifolium and confers sensitivity to the insecticide fenthion. We have now isolated and characterized the al-leles(More)
Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, the causal agent of black rot disease, depends on its type III secretion system (TTSS) to infect cruciferous plants, including Brassica oleracea, B. napus and Arabidopsis. Previous studies on the Arabidopsis-Pseudomonas syringae model pathosystem have indicated that a major function of TTSS from virulent bacteria is to(More)
Previous studies showed that inflammation and apoptosis were involved in the pathogenesis of hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. The immature brain is particularly vulnerable to damage. Intracerebral injection of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) has been shown to reduce the injury induced by hypoxia-ischemia (HI). In this study, the(More)
In response to addressing potassium (K) deficiency in soil and decreasing agricultural production costs, the potential of K-bearing phyllosilicate minerals that can be directly used as an alternative K source has been investigated using sodium tetraphenylboron (NaTPB) extraction and an intensive cropping experiment. The results showed that the critical(More)
Improper application of nitrogen (N) has led to high N losses and low N use efficiency in the lower reaches of Yangtze River in China. An effective method to solve such problems is the deep fertilized N in root zone (RZF). Limited information is available on the effect of RZF on the uptake of macronutrients (N, P and K) and rice yield. Field experiments,(More)