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Pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI) serves as a primary plant defense response against microbial pathogens, with MEKK1, MKK1/MKK2, and MPK4 functioning as a MAP kinase cascade downstream of PAMP receptors. Plant Resistance (R) proteins sense specific pathogen effectors to initiate a second defense mechanism, termed(More)
The Pto gene encodes a serine/threonine kinase that confers resistance to bacterial speck disease in tomato. Using the yeast two-hybrid system, we identified a second serine/threonine kinase, Pto-interacting 1 (Pti1), that physically interacts with Pto. Cross-phosphorylation assays revealed that Pto specifically phosphorylates Pti1 and that Pti1 does not(More)
Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 is a model pathogen infecting tomato and Arabidopsis plants. Genes encoding the type III secretion system and substrate proteins (collectively called TTSS genes) of this bacterium are induced in plants and in minimal medium (MM). The induction of TTSS genes is mediated by HrpL, an alternative sigma factor recognizing(More)
Type III secretion systems are highly conserved among gram-negative plant and animal pathogenic bacteria. Through the type III secretion system, bacteria inject a number of virulence proteins into the host cells. Analysis of the whole genome sequence of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 strain identified a locus, named HopPtoF, that is homologous to(More)
Substrates of the N-end rule pathway include proteins with destabilizing N-terminal residues. Three of them, Asp, Glu, and (oxidized) Cys, function through their conjugation to Arg, one of destabilizing N-terminal residues that are recognized directly by the pathway's ubiquitin ligases. The conjugation of Arg is mediated by arginyltransferase, encoded by(More)
The tumor suppressor protein p53 may have other roles and functions in addition to its well-documented ability to serve as a sequence-specific transcriptional activator in response to DNA damage. We showed previously that p53 can block the replication of polyomavirus origin-containing DNA (Py ori-DNA) in vitro when p53 binding sites are present on the late(More)
The intracellular pathogen Listeria monocytogenes escapes from a phagosomal compartment into the cytosol by secreting the pore-forming cytolysin listeriolysin O (LLO). During the proliferation of L. monocytogenes bacteria in the mammalian cell cytosol, the secreted LLO is targeted for degradation by the ubiquitin system. We report here that LLO is a(More)
Both sequence-specific DNA binding and exonuclease activities have been mapped to the central conserved core domain of p53. To gain more information about these two activities a series of mutants were generated that changed core domain histidine residues. Of these mutants, only one, H115N p53, showed markedly reduced exonuclease activity (ca. 15% of(More)
Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, the causal agent of black rot disease, depends on its type III secretion system (TTSS) to infect cruciferous plants, including Brassica oleracea, B. napus and Arabidopsis. Previous studies on the Arabidopsis-Pseudomonas syringae model pathosystem have indicated that a major function of TTSS from virulent bacteria is to(More)