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Early T-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ETP ALL) is an aggressive malignancy of unknown genetic basis. We performed whole-genome sequencing of 12 ETP ALL cases and assessed the frequency of the identified somatic mutations in 94 T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia cases. ETP ALL was characterized by activating mutations in genes regulating(More)
Medulloblastoma is a malignant childhood brain tumour comprising four discrete subgroups. Here, to identify mutations that drive medulloblastoma, we sequenced the entire genomes of 37 tumours and matched normal blood. One-hundred and thirty-six genes harbouring somatic mutations in this discovery set were sequenced in an additional 56 medulloblastomas.(More)
We developed 'clipping reveals structure' (CREST), an algorithm that uses next-generation sequencing reads with partial alignments to a reference genome to directly map structural variations at the nucleotide level of resolution. Application of CREST to whole-genome sequencing data from five pediatric T-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemias (T-ALLs) and a(More)
Chronic inflammation has a pathological role in many common diseases and is influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Here we assess the role of genetic variation in selenoprotein S (SEPS1, also called SELS or SELENOS), a gene involved in stress response in the endoplasmic reticulum and inflammation control. After resequencing SEPS1, we(More)
CONTEXT Neuroblastoma is diagnosed over a wide age range from birth through young adulthood, and older age at diagnosis is associated with a decline in survivability. OBJECTIVE To identify genetic mutations that are associated with age at diagnosis in patients with metastatic neuroblastoma. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS Whole genome sequencing was(More)
The most common pediatric brain tumors are low-grade gliomas (LGGs). We used whole-genome sequencing to identify multiple new genetic alterations involving BRAF, RAF1, FGFR1, MYB, MYBL1 and genes with histone-related functions, including H3F3A and ATRX, in 39 LGGs and low-grade glioneuronal tumors (LGGNTs). Only a single non-silent somatic alteration was(More)
Retinoblastoma is an aggressive childhood cancer of the developing retina that is initiated by the biallelic loss of RB1. Tumours progress very quickly following RB1 inactivation but the underlying mechanism is not known. Here we show that the retinoblastoma genome is stable, but that multiple cancer pathways can be epigenetically deregulated. To identify(More)
Infant acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) with MLL rearrangements (MLL-R) represents a distinct leukemia with a poor prognosis. To define its mutational landscape, we performed whole-genome, exome, RNA and targeted DNA sequencing on 65 infants (47 MLL-R and 18 non-MLL-R cases) and 20 older children (MLL-R cases) with leukemia. Our data show that infant(More)
Pediatric osteosarcoma is characterized by multiple somatic chromosomal lesions, including structural variations (SVs) and copy number alterations (CNAs). To define the landscape of somatic mutations in pediatric osteosarcoma, we performed whole-genome sequencing of DNA from 20 osteosarcoma tumor samples and matched normal tissue in a discovery cohort, as(More)
An evolutionary trend of decreasing size is present along the line to birds in coelurosaurian theropod evolution, but size increases are seen in many coelurosaurian subgroups, in which large forms are less bird-like. Here we report on a new non-avian dinosaur, Gigantoraptor erlianensis, gen. et sp. nov., from the Late Cretaceous Iren Dabasu Formation of Nei(More)