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The ON pathway of the visual system, which detects increases in light intensity, is established at the first retinal synapse between photoreceptors and ON-bipolar cells. Photoreceptors hyperpolarize in response to light and reduce the rate of glutamate release, which in turn causes the depolarization of ON-bipolar cells. This ON-bipolar cell response is(More)
The cerebellum of mormyrid fish is of interest for its large size and unusual histology. The mormyrid cerebellum, as in all ray-finned fishes, has three subdivisions--valvula, corpus, and caudal lobe. The structures of the mormyrid valvula and corpus have been examined previously, but the structure of the mormyrid caudal lobe has not been studied. The(More)
PURPOSE The retinal ON-bipolar cell (ON-BPC) light response is initiated upon deactivation of the metabotropic glutamate receptor mGluR6 and the G protein Go. G protein-based signaling cascades are typically accelerated by interaction of the G protein alpha subunit with a member of the regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) protein family. The goal of this(More)
Primary afferent fibers from the electroreceptors of mormyrid electric fish use a latency code to signal the intensity of electrical current evoked by the fish's own electric organ discharge (EOD). The afferent fibers terminate centrally in the deep and superficial granular layers of the electrosensory lobe with morphologically mixed chemical-electrical(More)
Polyamines are absolute requirements for cell growth. When in excess, Pseudomonas aeruginosa possesses six γ-glutamylpolyamine synthetases (GPSs) encoded by the pauA1-pauA7 genes to initiate polyamine catabolism. Recently, the pauA2 mutant was reported to lose the capability to grow on spermine (Spm) and spermidine (Spd) as sole carbon and nitrogen sources.(More)
The mormyrid electric …sh displays extremely …ne temporal resolution as measured in be-havioral studies. The …rst stage of sensory processing, the sensory a¤erents, also display very precise temporal responses to electrical stimulation. The a¤erents are connected through gap junctions to the granular cells, which in addition receive a corollary discharge(More)
4-Methylpiperazine-1-carbodithiocacid-3-cyano-3,3-diphenylpropyl ester hydrochloride (TM208) was a potential antitumor new drug with many preliminary studies in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. This study aims to determine whether TM208 elicits toxic effects by metabonomics for the first time. Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were exposured to TM208 at a(More)
The present study was conducted to compare the behavior of wheat straw, sawdust and biodegradable plastic (BP) as potential carbon sources for denitrification in groundwater remediation. The results showed that a greater amount of nitrogen compounds were released from wheat straw and sawdust than from BP in leaching experiments. In batch experiments, BP(More)
This paper investigates an SEIS model with bilinear incidence rate. By means of Lyapunov function theorem, we proved the global asymptotical stable results of the disease-free equilibrium and the endemic equilibrium. In addition, we also study the phenomena of Hopf bifurcation and limit cycle of the systems with the numerical simulations.
To enhance the efficiency of nitrate removal from synthetic groundwater, wheat rice stone (WRS) and granular activated carbon (GAC) were employed as biofilm carriers for denitrification under different HRT (hydraulic retention time) and C/N ratios. Four different ratios of GAC to WRS (0, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0) were investigated to determine the most appropriate(More)