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Activated macrophages play a critical role in controlling chronic tissue inflammation through the release of a variety of mediators including cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, active lipids, reactive oxygen, and nitrogen species. The mechanisms that regulate macrophage activation in chronic inflammation are poorly understood. A hallmark of chronic(More)
Nitric oxide (NO) is a radical molecule that not only serves as a vasodilator and neurotransmitter but also acts as a cytotoxic effector molecule of the immune system. The inducible enzyme making NO, inducible NO synthase (iNOS), is transcriptionally activated by IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha, cytokines which are produced during viral infection. We show that iNOS(More)
We have recently shown that leucine culture upregulates ATP synthase beta-subunit (ATPSbeta) and increases ATP level, cytosolic Ca(2+), and glucose-induced insulin secretion in rat islets. The aim is to test whether glucokinase expression is also affected in rat islets and its role in glucose sensitization during leucine culture. Leucine culture increased(More)
Interleukin-32 was recently identified as a pro-inflammatory cytokine produced by T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, epithelial cells, and blood monocytes. IL-32 is induced by IFN-gamma in a time-dependent manner suggesting a role for IL-32 in innate and adaptive immune responses. In this study we present evidence that Human immunodeficiency virus(More)
The pancreas-derived hormones, insulin and glucagon, are the two main regulators of glucose homeostasis. However, their actions can be modulated by the presence of other circulating factors including cytokines. Pancreatic-derived factor (PANDER) is a novel cytokine-like molecule secreted from the endocrine pancreas, but its biological function is currently(More)
The pancreatic-derived factor (PANDER, FAM3B) is a novel protein that is beta-cell specific and induces beta-cell death. PANDER is localized to insulin-containing granules-based on confocal microscopy and immunogold electron microscopy. PANDER protein was detected in the conditioned medium of betaTC3 cells. Using real-time reverse transcription-polymerase(More)
Pancreatic-derived factor (PANDER) is an islet-specific cytokine present in both pancreatic alpha- and beta-cells, which, in vitro, induces beta-cell apoptosis of primary islet and cell lines. In this study, we investigated whether PANDER is secreted by pancreatic alpha- and beta-cells and whether PANDER secretion is regulated by glucose and other insulin(More)
Our goal was to investigate whether leucine culture affects beta-cell glucose sensing. One-day culture of rat islets with 10 mM leucine had no effect on glucose-induced insulin secretion. One-week leucine culture decreased the threshold for glucose-induced insulin secretion and increased maximal insulin secretion at 30 mM glucose. Glucose-induced cytosolic(More)
Pancreatic derived factor (PANDER) is a recently identified cytokine-like protein that is dominantly expressed in the islets of Langerhans of the pancreas. To investigate the mechanism of tissue-specific regulation of PANDER, we identified and characterized the promoter region. The transcriptional start site was identified 520 bp upstream of the(More)
PANcreatic DERived factor (PANDER, FAM3B) is a recently discovered islet-specific cytokine. We have previously shown that, in vitro, truncated recombinant PANDER isoforms (20 and 21 kDa) are cytotoxic to beta-cell lines but the effects of full-length PANDER on islet biology remain unclear. In this study, we used adenovirus (Ad-PANDER) to overexpress(More)