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Conduction velocity (CV) of myelinated axons has been shown to be regulated by oligodendrocytes even after myelination has been completed. However, how myelinating oligodendrocytes regulate CV, and what the significance of this regulation is for normal brain function remain unknown. To address these questions, we analyzed a transgenic mouse line harboring(More)
While proteolytic enzymes are involved in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS), the involvement of cathepsins has not been characterized in detail. To better understand the role of cathepsins, cDNA microarray analysis was used to study the brains of proteolipid protein transgenic (plp tg /−) mice, an animal model that closely mimics the failure of(More)
Cathepsin C (Cat C) functions as a central coordinator for activation of many serine proteases in inflammatory cells. It has been recognized that Cat C is responsible for neutrophil recruitment and production of chemokines and cytokines in many inflammatory diseases. However, Cat C expression and its functional role in the brain under normal conditions or(More)
Neuroinflammation is a hallmark that leads to selective neuronal loss and/or dysfunction in neurodegenerative disorders. Microglia-derived lysosomal cathepsins are increasingly recognized as important inflammatory mediators to trigger signaling pathways that aggravate neuroinflammation. However, cathepsin H (Cat H), a cysteine protease, has been far less(More)
Various animal models are available for studying human multiple sclerosis (MS). Most of them model the initial phase of MS,including the immune-triggered attack of the myelin membrane and/or oligodendrocytes and, occasionally, demonstrate there mission and relapsing phases. However, few mimic the late chronic demyelinating phase. Overexpression of the(More)
Demyelination coincides with numerous changes of gene expression in the central nervous system (CNS). Cystatin F, which is a papain-like lysosomal cysteine proteinase inhibitor that is normally expressed by immune cells and not in the brain, is massively induced in the CNS during acute demyelination. We found that microglia, which are(More)
Although the precise mechanism underlying initial lesion development in multiple sclerosis (MS) remains unclear, CNS inflammation has long been associated with demyelination, and axonal degeneration. The activation of microglia/macrophages, which serve as innate immune cells in the CNS, is the first reaction to even minor pathologic changes in the CNS and(More)
Dural tear is one of the common complications of spinal surgery leading to cerebrospinal fluid leakage followed by serial secondary symptoms. However, little is known about pathological changes of the spinal cord after dural tear. In the present study, we aimed to study the pathological changes in the spinal cord after dural tear with and without autologous(More)
Based on service recovery theory, taking the customers of China Mobile, one of the telecom operators in China, as the object of research, this research empirically studies the influential factors of service recovery satisfaction in telecommunications industry. A hypotheses model is established with four dimensions of influential factors of service recovery(More)
The immuno-inflammatory activation triggered by various stresses play an important role in pathophysiology of depression. The immune responses display differential pathological characters in different stresses. However, comparative data and analysis on behavioural, inflammatory and neurochemical changes in different stress-induced depression is limited. To(More)