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Local accumulation of the plant growth regulator auxin mediates pattern formation in Arabidopsis roots and influences outgrowth and development of lateral root- and shoot-derived primordia. However, it has remained unclear how auxin can simultaneously regulate patterning and organ outgrowth and how its distribution is stabilized in a primordium-specific(More)
The plant growth regulator auxin controls cell identity, cell division and cell expansion. Auxin efflux facilitators (PINs) are associated with auxin maxima in distal regions of both shoots and roots. Here we model diffusion and PIN-facilitated auxin transport in and across cells within a structured root layout. In our model, the stable accumulation of(More)
Vesicle trafficking is essential for the generation of asymmetries, which are central to multicellular development. Core components of the vesicle transport machinery, such as ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) GTPases, have been studied primarily at the single-cell level. Here, we analyze developmental functions of the ARF1 subclass of the Arabidopsis thaliana(More)
BACKGROUND In contrast to the intense attention devoted to research on intracellular sterol trafficking in animal cells, knowledge about sterol transport in plant cells remains limited, and virtually nothing is known about plant endocytic sterol trafficking. Similar to animals, biosynthetic sterol transport occurs from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) via the(More)
Soluble oligomers of amyloid beta (Abeta) play a role in the memory impairment characteristic of Alzheimer's disease. Acting as pathogenic ligands, Abeta oligomers bind to particular synapses and perturb their function, morphology, and maintenance. Events that occur shortly after oligomer binding have been investigated here in live hippocampal neurons by(More)
This paper proposes a generic framework for monitoring continuous spatial queries over moving objects. The framework distinguishes itself from existing work by being the first to address the location update issue and to provide a common interface for monitoring mixed types of queries. Based on the notion of safe region, the client location update strategy(More)
—Mobile location-dependent information services (LDISs) have become increasingly popular in recent years. However, data caching strategies for LDISs have thus far received little attention. In this paper, we study the issues of cache invalidation and cache replacement for location-dependent data under a geometric location model. We introduce a new(More)
Dynamically polarized membrane proteins define different cell boundaries and have an important role in intercellular communication-a vital feature of multicellular development. Efflux carriers for the signalling molecule auxin from the PIN family are landmarks of cell polarity in plants and have a crucial involvement in auxin distribution-dependent(More)
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the most common cause of death and disability in young people. The functional outcome in patients with TBI cannot be explained by focal pathology alone, and diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is considered a major contributor to the neurocognitive deficits experienced by this group. The aim of the present study was to investigate(More)
Synaptic vesicle recycling is essential for maintaining efficient synaptic transmission. Detailed dissection of single-vesicle recycling still remains a major challenge. We have developed a fluorescent pH reporter that permits us to follow the fate of individual vesicles at hippocampal synapses after exocytosis. Here we show that, during low-frequency(More)