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Changes in the spatiotemporal pattern of vegetation alter the structure and function of landscapes, consequently affecting biodiversity and ecological processes. Distinguishing human-induced vegetation changes from those driven by environmental variations is critically important for ecological understanding and management of landscapes. The main objectives(More)
The output resistance (hut) is one of the most important device parameters for analog applications. However, it has been difficult to model hut correctly. In this paper, we present a physical and accurate output resistance model that can be applied to both long-channel and submicrometer MOSFETs. Major short channel effects and hot-carrier effect, such as(More)
Grassland ecosystems account for approximately 32% of global natural vegetation (Parton et al., 1995). China has some of the most plentiful grassland resources in the world and grasslands are one of the most important renewable resources in arid and semi-arid regions of North China (e.g. Inner Mongolia). In recent decades, intense human activities, such as(More)
Poplar plantation is the most dominant broadleaf forest type in northern China. Since the mid-1990s plantation was intensified to combat desertification along China's northwestern border, i.e., within Inner Mongolia (IM). This evoked much concern regarding the ecological and environmental effects on areas that naturally grow grass or shrub vegetation. To(More)
Habitat fragmentation is the primary cause of the loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services, but its underlying processes and mechanisms remain poorly understood. Studies of islands and insular terrestrial habitats are essential for improving our understanding of habitat fragmentation. We argue that the Three-Gorges Dam, the largest that humans have ever(More)
Acknowledgment: The development of BSIM3v3.2 benefited from the input of many BSIM3 users, especially the Compact Model Council (CMC) member companies. TSMC for their valuable assistance in identifying the desirable modifications and testing of the new model. their guidance and support.