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In higher eukaryotes, miRNAs and siRNAs guide translational inhibition, mRNA cleavage, or chromatin regulation. We found that the antisense overlapping gene pair of Delta(1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase (P5CDH), a stress-related gene, and SRO5, a gene of unknown function, generates two types of siRNAs. When both transcripts are present, a 24-nt(More)
Salt cress (Thellungiella halophila) is a small winter annual crucifer with a short life cycle. It has a small genome (about 2 x Arabidopsis) with high sequence identity (average 92%) with Arabidopsis, and can be genetically transformed by the simple floral dip procedure. It is capable of copious seed production. Salt cress is an extremophile native to(More)
Cold acclimation involves precise signaling and regulation of the transcrip-tome. The plasma membrane may be the primary cold-stress sensor, and FRY1/HOS2 inositol polyphosphate 1-phosphatase regulates cytosolic inosi-tol-1,4,5-triphosphate levels, which in turn control cytosolic Ca 2þ signatures and cold acclimation. Cold-induced reactive oxygen species(More)
Histone modification in chromatin is one of the key control points in gene regulation in eukaryotic cells. Protein complexes composed of histone acetyltransferase or deacetylase, WD40 repeat protein, and many other components have been implicated in this process. Here, we report the identification and functional characterization of HOS15, a WD40-repeat(More)
Post-translational modifications of histones play crucial roles in the genetic and epigenetic regulation of gene expression from chromatin. Studies in mammals and yeast have found conserved modifications at some residues of histones as well as non-conserved modifications at some other sites. Although plants have been excellent systems to study epigenetic(More)
Abiotic stress is one of the primary causes of crop losses worldwide. Much progress has been made in unraveling the complex stress response mechanisms, particularly in the identification of stress responsive protein-coding genes. In addition to protein coding genes, recently discovered microRNAs (miRNAs) and endogenous small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) have(More)
RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) is an RNAi-based mechanism for establishing transcriptional gene silencing in plants. The plant-specific RNA polymerases IV and V are required for the generation of 24-nucleotide (nt) siRNAs and for guiding sequence-specific DNA methylation by the siRNAs, respectively. However, unlike the extensively studied multisubunit(More)
DNA methylation is an important epigenetic mark for transcriptional gene silencing (TGS) in diverse organisms. Recent studies suggest that the methylation status of a number of genes is dynamically regulated by methylation and demethylation. In Arabidopsis, active DNA demethylation is mediated by the ROS1 (repressor of silencing 1) subfamily of(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIMS Chronic inflammatory process plays an important role in atherothrombosis. Interleukin-1 (IL-1) is one of the key modulators of the inflammatory response and its activity is critically regulated by its receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra). A variable number tandem repeat polymorphism in intron 2 of IL-1Ra gene and a C to T single base(More)
A new antitumor and antioxidant peptide (H3) was isolated from Arca subcrenata Lischke using ion exchange and hydrophobic column chromatography. The purity of H3 was over 99.3% in reversed phase-high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and the molecular weight was determined to be 20,491.0 Da by electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS).(More)