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Nuclear factor Y (NF-Y) is a ubiquitous transcription factor composed of three distinct subunits (NF-YA, NF-YB, and NF-YC). We found that the Arabidopsis thaliana NFYA5 transcript is strongly induced by drought stress in an abscisic acid (ABA)-dependent manner. Promoter:beta-glucuronidase analyses showed that NFYA5 was highly expressed in vascular tissues(More)
Cold stress adversely affects plant growth and development. Most temperate plants acquire freezing tolerance by a process called cold acclimation. Here, we focus on recent progress in transcriptional, post-transcriptional and post-translational regulation of gene expression that is critical for cold acclimation. Transcriptional regulation is mediated by the(More)
The abiotic stresses of drought, salinity and freezing are linked by the fact that they all decrease the availability of water to plant cells. This decreased availability of water is quantified as a decrease in water potential. Plants resist low water potential and related stresses by modifying water uptake and loss to avoid low water potential,(More)
In higher eukaryotes, miRNAs and siRNAs guide translational inhibition, mRNA cleavage, or chromatin regulation. We found that the antisense overlapping gene pair of Delta(1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase (P5CDH), a stress-related gene, and SRO5, a gene of unknown function, generates two types of siRNAs. When both transcripts are present, a 24-nt(More)
The adverse effects of high salt on plants include Na(+) toxicity and hyperosmotic and oxidative stresses. The plasma membrane-localized Na(+)/H(+) antiporter SOS1 functions in the extrusion of toxic Na(+) from cells and is essential for plant salt tolerance. We report here that, under salt or oxidative stress, SOS1 interacts through its predicted(More)
Salt cress (Thellungiella halophila) is a small winter annual crucifer with a short life cycle. It has a small genome (about 2 x Arabidopsis) with high sequence identity (average 92%) with Arabidopsis, and can be genetically transformed by the simple floral dip procedure. It is capable of copious seed production. Salt cress is an extremophile native to(More)
Abiotic stress is one of the primary causes of crop losses worldwide. Much progress has been made in unraveling the complex stress response mechanisms, particularly in the identification of stress responsive protein-coding genes. In addition to protein coding genes, recently discovered microRNAs (miRNAs) and endogenous small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) have(More)
An Arabidopsis thaliana mutant, cryophyte, was isolated and found to have an enhanced cold stress-induction of the master regulator of cold tolerance, C-repeat binding factor 2 (CBF2), and its downstream target genes. The mutant is more tolerant to chilling and freezing stresses but is more sensitive to heat stress. Under warm but not cold growth(More)
Small, non-coding RNAs are a distinct class of regulatory RNAs in plants and animals that control a variety of biological processes. In plants, several classes of small RNAs with specific sizes and dedicated functions have evolved through a series of pathways. The major classes of small RNAs include microRNAs (miRNAs) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs),(More)
Cold acclimation involves precise signaling and regulation of the transcrip-tome. The plasma membrane may be the primary cold-stress sensor, and FRY1/HOS2 inositol polyphosphate 1-phosphatase regulates cytosolic inosi-tol-1,4,5-triphosphate levels, which in turn control cytosolic Ca 2þ signatures and cold acclimation. Cold-induced reactive oxygen species(More)