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The Bioconductor project is an initiative for the collaborative creation of extensible software for computational biology and bioinformatics. The goals of the project include: fostering collaborative development and widespread use of innovative software, reducing barriers to entry into interdisciplinary scientific research, and promoting the achievement of(More)
The interrelationship among water-stress-induced abscisic acid (ABA) accumulation, the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and the activities of several antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and glutathione reductase (GR) was investigated in leaves of detached maize (Zea mays L.) plants(More)
This paper presents an optimal economic dispatch for power plants by using modified particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm. The economic dispatch problem in power systems is to determine the optimal combination of power outputs for all generating units in order that the total fuel cost can be minimized, furthermore, all practical constraints can be(More)
BACKGROUND Diffuse low-grade and intermediate-grade gliomas (which together make up the lower-grade gliomas, World Health Organization grades II and III) have highly variable clinical behavior that is not adequately predicted on the basis of histologic class. Some are indolent; others quickly progress to glioblastoma. The uncertainty is compounded by(More)
Catalase controls cellular H(2)O(2) and plays important roles in the adaptation of plants to various stresses, but little is known about the signaling events that lead to the expression of CAT1 and the production of H(2)O(2). Here we report the dependence of CAT1 expression and H(2)O(2) production on a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade. CAT1(More)
* The role of nitric oxide (NO) and the relationship between NO, hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in abscisic acid (ABA)-induced antioxidant defense in leaves of maize (Zea mays) plants were investigated. * Both ABA and H(2)O(2) induced increases in the generation of NO in mesophyll cells of maize leaves, and H(2)O(2)(More)
The role of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in abscisic acid (ABA)-induced antioxidant defense was investigated in leaves of maize (Zea mays) plants. Treatments with ABA or H(2)O(2) induced the activation of a 46-kD MAPK and enhanced the expression of the antioxidant genes CAT1, cAPX, and GR1 and the total activities of the antioxidant enzymes(More)
The roles of the plasma-membrane (PM) NADPH oxidase in abscisic acid (ABA)- and water stress-induced antioxidant defense were investigated in leaves of maize (Zea mays L.) seedlings. Treatment by exogenous ABA (100 µM ABA) or osmotic stress (–0.7 MPa induced by polyethylene glycol) significantly increased the activity of the PM NADPH oxidase, the production(More)
Monocarpic plants require the initiation of whole-plant senescence to remobilize and transfer assimilates pre-stored in vegetative tissues to grains. Delayed whole-plant senescence caused by either heavy use of nitrogen fertilizer or adoption of lodging-resistant cultivars/hybrids that remain green when the grains are due to ripen results in a low harvest(More)