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We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in a Chinese Han population by genotyping 1,047 cases and 1,205 controls using Illumina Human610-Quad BeadChips and replicating 78 SNPs in two additional cohorts (3,152 cases and 7,050 controls). We identified nine new susceptibility loci (ETS1, IKZF1, RASGRP3,(More)
Repetitive nerve firings cause short-term depression (STD) of release at many synapses. Its underlying mechanism is largely attributed to depletion of a readily releasable vesicle pool (RRP) and a decreased probability of releasing a readily releasable vesicle during an action potential. Which of these two mechanisms is dominant and the mechanism that(More)
Following the events of September 11, 2001, in the United States, world public awareness for possible terrorist attacks on water supply systems has increased dramatically. Among the different threats for a water distribution system, the most difficult to address is a deliberate chemical or biological contaminant injection, due to both the uncertainty of the(More)
Accumulated evidence indicates the existence of rapid and slow endocytosis at many synapses. It has been proposed that rapid endocytosis is activated by intense stimulation when vesicle recycling needs to be speeded up to supply vesicles at hippocampal synapses. However, the evidence, as obtained with imaging techniques, which are somewhat indirect in(More)
Although endocytosis maintains synaptic transmission, how endocytosis is initiated is unclear. We found that calcium influx initiated all forms of endocytosis at a single nerve terminal in rodents, including clathrin-dependent slow endocytosis, bulk endocytosis, rapid endocytosis and endocytosis overshoot (excess endocytosis), with each being evoked with a(More)
Repetitive nerve activity induces various forms of short-term synaptic plasticity that have important computational roles in neuronal networks. Several forms of short-term plasticity are caused largely by changes in transmitter release, but the mechanisms that underlie these changes in the release process have been difficult to address. Recent studies of a(More)
Exocytosis at synapses involves fusion between vesicles and the plasma membrane. Although compound fusion between vesicles was proposed to occur at ribbon-type synapses, whether it exists, how it is mediated, and what role it plays at conventional synapses remain unclear. Here we report the existence of compound fusion, its underlying mechanism, and its(More)
Primary Sjögren's syndrome is one of the most common autoimmune diseases. So far, genetic studies of Sjögren's syndrome have relied mostly on candidate gene approaches. To identify new genetic susceptibility loci for primary Sjögren's syndrome, we performed a three-stage genome-wide association study in Han Chinese. In the discovery stage, we analyzed(More)
Background. Gastric cancer (GC) is an important malignant disease around the world. Abnormalities of microRNAs (miRNAs) have been implicated in carcinogenesis of various cancers. In the present study, we examined miR-21 expression in human gastric cancer with lymph node metastasis and attempted to uncover its relationship with clinicopathologic data,(More)