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Influenza virus remains a serious health threat, owing to its ability to evade immune surveillance through rapid genetic drift and reassortment. Here we used a human non-immune antibody phage-display library and the H5 hemagglutinin ectodomain to select ten neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) that were effective against all group 1 influenza viruses tested,(More)
Spike (S) proteins of coronaviruses, including the coronavirus that causes severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), associate with cellular receptors to mediate infection of their target cells. Here we identify a metallopeptidase, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), isolated from SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV)-permissive Vero E6 cells, that efficiently(More)
The 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza pandemic demonstrated the global health threat of reassortant influenza strains. Herein, we report a detailed analysis of plasmablast and monoclonal antibody responses induced by pandemic H1N1 infection in humans. Unlike antibodies elicited by annual influenza vaccinations, most neutralizing antibodies induced by pandemic(More)
Human hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and HBV-related diseases remain a major public health problem. Individuals coinfected with its satellite hepatitis D virus (HDV) have more severe disease. Cellular entry of both viruses is mediated by HBV envelope proteins. The pre-S1 domain of the large envelope protein is a key determinant for receptor(s) binding.(More)
West Nile virus has spread rapidly across the United States, and there is currently no approved human vaccine or therapy to prevent or treat disease. Passive immunization with antibodies against the envelope protein represents a promising means to provide short-term prophylaxis and treatment for West Nile virus infection. In this study, we identified a(More)
Phylogenetic analyses have provided strong evidence that amino acid changes in spike (S) protein of animal and human SARS coronaviruses (SARS-CoVs) during and between two zoonotic transfers (2002/03 and 2003/04) are the result of positive selection. While several studies support that some amino acid changes between animal and human viruses are the result of(More)
Recent studies have shown high usage of the IGHV1-69 germline immunoglobulin gene for influenza hemagglutinin stem-directed broadly-neutralizing antibodies (HV1-69-sBnAbs). Here we show that a major structural solution for these HV1-69-sBnAbs is achieved through a critical triad comprising two CDR-H2 loop anchor residues (a hydrophobic residue at position(More)
Hepatitis D virus (HDV) is the smallest virus known to infect human. About 15 million people worldwide are infected by HDV among those 240 million infected by its helper hepatitis B virus (HBV). Viral hepatitis D is considered as one of the most severe forms of human viral hepatitis. No specific antivirals are currently available to treat HDV infection and(More)
BACKGROUND Although several therapeutic options have become available for patients with Cutaneous T-cell Lymphoma (CTCL), no therapy has been curative. Recent studies have demonstrated that CTCL cells overexpress the CC chemokine receptor 4 (CCR4). METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS In this study, a xenograft model of CTCL was established and a recombinant(More)
BACKGROUND Isolation of human antibodies using current display technologies can be limited by constraints on protein expression, folding and post-translational modifications. Here we describe a discovery platform that utilizes self-inactivating (SIN) lentiviral vectors for the surface display of high-affinity single-chain variable region (scFv) antibody(More)