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Human hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and HBV-related diseases remain a major public health problem. Individuals coinfected with its satellite hepatitis D virus (HDV) have more severe disease. Cellular entry of both viruses is mediated by HBV envelope proteins. The pre-S1 domain of the large envelope protein is a key determinant for receptor(s) binding.(More)
Influenza virus remains a serious health threat, owing to its ability to evade immune surveillance through rapid genetic drift and reassortment. Here we used a human non-immune antibody phage-display library and the H5 hemagglutinin ectodomain to select ten neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) that were effective against all group 1 influenza viruses tested,(More)
Spike (S) proteins of coronaviruses, including the coronavirus that causes severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), associate with cellular receptors to mediate infection of their target cells. Here we identify a metallopeptidase, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), isolated from SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV)-permissive Vero E6 cells, that efficiently(More)
The 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza pandemic demonstrated the global health threat of reassortant influenza strains. Herein, we report a detailed analysis of plasmablast and monoclonal antibody responses induced by pandemic H1N1 infection in humans. Unlike antibodies elicited by annual influenza vaccinations, most neutralizing antibodies induced by pandemic(More)
Human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a functional receptor for SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Here we identify the SARS-CoV spike (S)-protein-binding site on ACE2. We also compare S proteins of SARS-CoV isolated during the 2002-2003 SARS outbreak and during the much less severe 2003-2004 outbreak, and from palm civets, a possible source of SARS-CoV(More)
UNLABELLED The liver bile acids transporter sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP) is responsible for the majority of sodium-dependent bile salts uptake by hepatocytes. NTCP also functions as a cellular receptor for viral entry of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis D virus (HDV) through a specific interaction between NTCP and the pre-S1(More)
Human hepatitis B virus (HBV) and its satellite virus, hepatitis D virus (HDV), primarily infect humans, chimpanzees, or tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri). Viral infections in other species are known to be mainly restricted at the entry level since viral replication can be achieved in the cells by transfection of the viral genome. Sodium taurocholate(More)
Effective prophylaxis and antiviral therapies are urgently needed in the event of reemergence of the highly contagious and often fatal severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus (SARS-CoV) infection. We have identified eight recombinant human single-chain variable region fragments (scFvs) against the S1 domain of spike (S) protein of the SARS-CoV(More)
UNLABELLED Pancreatic cancer is a common and lethal malignancy. Pancreatic cancer cells overexpress multiple anti-apoptotic factors and death receptor decoys, and are strongly resistant to radiation and to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)- or gemcitabine (Gem)-based chemotherapy regimens. We have found that low-dose proteasome inhibitor PS-341 and histone deacetylase(More)
BACKGROUND Lack of life-long immunity against influenza viruses represents a major global health care problem with profound medical and economic consequences. A greater understanding of the broad-spectrum "heterosubtypic" neutralizing human antibody (BnAb) response to influenza should bring us closer toward a universal influenza vaccine. METHODS Serum(More)