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High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a nuclear factor that is released extracellularly as a late mediator of lethality in sepsis as well as after necrotic, but not apoptotic, death. Here we demonstrate that in contrast to the delayed role of HMGB1 in the systemic inflammation of sepsis, HMGB1 acts as an early mediator of inflammation and organ damage in(More)
Despite significant advances in intensive care therapy and antibiotics, severe sepsis accounts for 9% of all deaths in the United States annually. The pathological sequelae of sepsis are characterized by a systemic inflammatory response, but experimental therapeutics that target specific early inflammatory mediators [tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and(More)
During infection, vertebrates develop "sickness syndrome," characterized by fever, anorexia, behavioral withdrawal, acute-phase protein responses, and inflammation. These pathophysiological responses are mediated by cytokines, including TNF and IL-1, released during the innate immune response to invasion. Even in the absence of infection, qualitatively(More)
The purpose of this study was to determine the role of transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) receptor in modulating neuronal activity of the dorsolateral periaqueductal gray (dl-PAG) through excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs. First, whole cell voltage-clamp recording was performed to obtain the spontaneous miniature excitatory(More)
High mobility group box protein 1 (HMGB1), a DNA binding nuclear and cytosolic protein, is a proinflammatory cytokine released by monocytes and macrophages. This study addressed the hypothesis that HMGB1 is an immunostimulatory signal that induces dendritic cell (DC) maturation. We show that HMGB1, via its B box domain, induced phenotypic maturation of DCs,(More)
High mobility group box 1 (HMGB), a ubiquitous DNA-binding protein, has been implicated as a proinflammatory cytokine and late mediator of lethal endotoxemia. HMGB1 is released by activated macrophages. It amplifies and extends the inflammatory response by inducing cytokine release and mediating acute lung injury, anorexia, and the inflammatory response to(More)
The cell-to-cell transmission of viral resistance is a potential mechanism for amplifying the interferon-induced antiviral response. In this study, we report that interferon-α (IFN-α) induced the transfer of resistance to hepatitis B virus (HBV) from nonpermissive liver nonparenchymal cells (LNPCs) to permissive hepatocytes via exosomes. Exosomes from(More)
Autophagy is a conserved eukaryotic mechanism that mediates the removal of long-lived cytoplasmic macromolecules and damaged organelles via a lysosomal degradative pathway. Recently, a multitude of studies have reported that viral infections may have complex interconnections with the autophagic process. The findings reported here demonstrate that hepatitis(More)
We propose an integrated approach to interactive word-completion for users with linguistic disabilities in which semantic knowledge combines with $n$-gram probabilities to predict semantically more-appropriate words than $n$-gram methods alone. First, semantic relatives are found for English words, specifically for nouns, and they form the semantic(More)