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BACKGROUND On March 30, a novel influenza A subtype H7N9 virus (A/H7N9) was detected in patients with severe respiratory disease in eastern China. Virological factors associated with a poor clinical outcome for this virus remain unclear. We quantified the viral load and analysed antiviral resistance mutations in specimens from patients with A/H7N9. (More)
High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a nuclear factor that is released extracellularly as a late mediator of lethality in sepsis as well as after necrotic, but not apoptotic, death. Here we demonstrate that in contrast to the delayed role of HMGB1 in the systemic inflammation of sepsis, HMGB1 acts as an early mediator of inflammation and organ damage in(More)
Knowing the polarity of clinical outcomes is important in answering questions posed by clinicians in patient treatment. We treat analysis of this information as a classification problem. Natural language processing and machine learning techniques are applied to detect four possibilities in medical text: no outcome, positive outcome, negative outcome, and(More)
We propose an integrated approach to interactive word-completion for users with linguistic disabilities in which semantic knowledge combines with $n$-gram probabilities to predict semantically more-appropriate words than $n$-gram methods alone. First, semantic relatives are found for English words, specifically for nouns, and they form the semantic(More)
BACKGROUND Sympathetic nervous system activity increases with exercise in normal subjects. Heightened peripheral sympathetic nervous activity and the resultant increased neurovascular levels of norepinephrine (NE) evoke vasoconstriction and serve to maintain blood pressure and perfusion to vital organs. Previous work demonstrated that the interstitial ATP(More)
BACKGROUND During exercise, the sympathetic nervous system is activated and blood pressure and heart rate increase. In heart failure (HF), the muscle metaboreceptor contribution to sympathetic outflow is attenuated and the mechanoreceptor contribution is accentuated. Previous studies suggest that (1) capsaicin stimulates muscle metabosensitive vanilloid(More)
The purpose of this study was to determine the role of transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) receptor in modulating neuronal activity of the dorsolateral periaqueductal gray (dl-PAG) through excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs. First, whole cell voltage-clamp recording was performed to obtain the spontaneous miniature excitatory(More)
The inflammasome regulates the release of caspase activation-dependent cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-18 and high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1). By studying HMGB1 release mechanisms, here we identify a role for double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR, also known as EIF2AK2) in inflammasome activation. Exposure of macrophages to(More)