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High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a nuclear factor that is released extracellularly as a late mediator of lethality in sepsis as well as after necrotic, but not apoptotic, death. Here we demonstrate that in contrast to the delayed role of HMGB1 in the systemic inflammation of sepsis, HMGB1 acts as an early mediator of inflammation and organ damage in(More)
The inflammasome regulates the release of caspase activation-dependent cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-18 and high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1). By studying HMGB1 release mechanisms, here we identify a role for double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR, also known as EIF2AK2) in inflammasome activation. Exposure of macrophages to(More)
High mobility group box protein 1 (HMGB1), a DNA binding nuclear and cytosolic protein, is a proinflammatory cytokine released by monocytes and macrophages. This study addressed the hypothesis that HMGB1 is an immunostimulatory signal that induces dendritic cell (DC) maturation. We show that HMGB1, via its B box domain, induced phenotypic maturation of DCs,(More)
The immune responses and protective efficacy against homologous challenge in chickens elicited by recombinant proteins of a rhomboid-like gene (ETRHO1) from Eimeria tenella was investigated in the present study. When chickens were immunized with the recombinant rhomboid antigen, specific antibody was generated by ELISA assay. In comparison with the PBS(More)
Previous studies have suggested that activation of ATP-sensitive P2X receptors in skeletal muscle play a role in mediating the exercise pressor reflex (Li J and Sinoway LI. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 283: H2636-H2643, 2002). To determine the role ATP plays in this reflex, it is necessary to examine whether muscle interstitial ATP (ATPi) concentrations(More)
The spatial and temporal variations of the fish assemblages in mountain streams of China are poorly understood. The relationships between the fish assemblage and selected habitat features were examined in the North Tiaoxi River, one of headwaters of Taihu Lake. A total of 3,348 individuals belonging to 5 orders, 11 families, 25 genera and 34 species were(More)
The purpose of this study was to determine the role of transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) receptor in modulating neuronal activity of the dorsolateral periaqueductal gray (dl-PAG) through excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs. First, whole cell voltage-clamp recording was performed to obtain the spontaneous miniature excitatory(More)
Endogenously produced hydrogen sulfide (H2S) may have multiple functions in brain. An increasing number of studies have demonstrated its anti-inflammatory effects. In the present study, we investigated the effect of sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS, a H2S donor) on cognitive impairment and neuroinflammatory changes induced by injections of Amyloid-β1-40 (Aβ1-40),(More)
It has been suggested that the midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG) is a neural integrating site for the interaction between the muscle pressor reflex and the arterial baroreceptor reflex. The underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to examine the roles of GABA and nitric oxide (NO) in modulating the PAG integration of both(More)
Reflex cardiovascular responses to muscle contraction are mediated by mechanical and metabolic stimulation of thin muscle afferent fibers. Metabolic stimulants and receptors involved in responses are uncertain. Capsaicin depolarizes thin sensory afferent nerves that have vanilloid type 1 receptors (VR1). Among potential endogenous ligands of thin fibers, H+(More)