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Herein we describe a novel series of compounds from which varenicline (1, 6,7,8,9-tetrahydro-6,10-methano-6H-pyrazino[2,3-h][3]benzazepine) has been identified for smoking cessation. Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) mediate the dependence-producing effects of nicotine. We have pursued alpha4beta2 nicotinic receptor partial agonists to(More)
Aberrant TGFbeta signaling is common in human cancers and contributes to tumor metastasis. Here, we demonstrate that Gr-1+CD11b+ myeloid cells are recruited into mammary carcinomas with type II TGF beta receptor gene (Tgfbr2) deletion and directly promote tumor metastasis. Gr-1+CD11b+ cells infiltrate into the invasive front of tumor tissues and facilitate(More)
We studied the role of the bursicon gene in wing expansion. First, we investigated its expression at different developmental stages in the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Bursicon gene was expressed at low levels in larvae, high levels in pupae, and low levels again in adults. Then, we injected the double-stranded bursicon RNA into B. mori pupae to test RNA(More)
Angiogenesis does not only depend on endothelial cell invasion and proliferation: it also requires pericyte coverage of vascular sprouts for vessel stabilization. These processes are coordinated by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) through their cognate receptors on endothelial cells and vascular smooth(More)
Neurons are damaged following prolonged exposure to high concentrations of corticosterone, particularly during chronic inflammatory and immune diseases. One of the main mechanisms underlying neuronal injury is apoptosis. In the present study the neuroprotective effects of icariin, an active natural ingredient from the Chinese plant Epimedium sagittatum(More)
Glucose-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production initiates podocyte apoptosis, which represents a novel early mechanism leading to diabetic nephropathy (DN). Here, we tested the hypothesis that Astragaloside IV(AS-IV) exerts antioxidant and antiapoptotic effects on podocytes under diabetic conditions. Apoptosis, albuminuria, ROS generation,(More)
Oxidative stress and apoptosis play key role in the pathogenesis of acute kidney injury (AKI). We hypothesize that Astragaloside IV(AS-IV) prevents AKI through inhibiting oxidative stress and apoptosis. The rats were divided into sham control, saline-,vehicle-, or AS-IV-treated groups. AS-IV (20 mg/kg) was orally administered once daily to the rats for 7(More)
BACKGROUND Therapeutic angiogenesis seeks to promote blood vessel growth to improve tissue perfusion. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) exists in multiple isoforms. We investigated an engineered zinc finger-containing transcription factor plasmid designed to activate the endogenous VEGF gene (ZFP-VEGF). METHODS AND RESULTS New Zealand White(More)