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We reported the first attempt to describe mucosa-associated bacterial populations in the chicken ceca by molecular analysis of 16S rRNA genes. Bacteria in the mucosa were highly diverse but mainly Gram-positive with low G+C. Fusobacterium prausnitzii and butyrate-producing bacteria comprised the largest groups among 116 cloned sequences. Twenty five percent(More)
The development of bone-rebuilding anabolic agents for potential use in the treatment of bone loss conditions, such as osteoporosis, has been a long-standing goal. Genetic studies in humans and mice have shown that the secreted protein sclerostin is a key negative regulator of bone formation, although the magnitude and extent of sclerostin's role in the(More)
INTRODUCTION Sclerosteosis is a rare high bone mass genetic disorder in humans caused by inactivating mutations in SOST, the gene encoding sclerostin. Based on these data, sclerostin has emerged as a key negative regulator of bone mass. We generated SOST knockout (KO) mice to gain a more detailed understanding of the effects of sclerostin deficiency on(More)
Mucosa-associated microbiota from different regions of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of adult broilers was studied by analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences. The microbiota mainly comprised Gram-positive bacteria along the GI tract. Fifty-one operational taxonomic units (OTUs) (from 98 clones) were detected in the ceca, as compared with 13 OTUs (from 49(More)
Parkinson's disease (PD) patients vary widely in their response to levodopa treatment, and this variation may be partially genetic in origin. We determined whether particular dopamine and opioid receptor polymorphisms were associated with risk of earlier onset of dyskinesia side effects during levodopa therapy. Smoking status was also examined. The 92(More)
AIMS Determining the effects of zinc bacitracin, bird age and access to range on bacterial microbiota in the ileum and caeca of broilers. METHODS AND RESULTS 16S rRNA gene-based polymerase chain reaction-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) profiling, DNA sequencing and real-time quantitative PCR techniques were used. The richness of(More)
The study was to determine effects of dietary supplementation of chitosan (COS) and galacto-mannan-oligosaccharides (GMOS) on some serum biochemical indices, serum growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) levels, and hepatic and long gissimus muscle IGF-I mRNA expression in early-weaned piglets. Twenty six Duroc x Landrace x Yorkshire(More)
BACKGROUND Contamination of grains with trichothecene mycotoxins, especially deoxynivalenol (DON), has been an ongoing problem for Canada and many other countries. Mycotoxin contamination creates food safety risks, reduces grain market values, threatens livestock industries, and limits agricultural produce exports. DON is a secondary metabolite produced by(More)
The secreted glycoprotein sclerostin has recently emerged as a key negative regulator of Wnt signaling in bone and has stimulated considerable interest as a potential target for therapeutics designed to treat conditions associated with low bone mass, such as osteoporosis. We have determined the structure of sclerostin, which resulted in the identification(More)
The chicken gut-associated lymphoid tissue is made up of a number of tissues and cells that are responsible for generating mucosal immune responses and maintaining intestinal homeostasis. The normal chicken microbiota also contributes to this via the ability to activate both innate defense mechanisms and adaptive immune responses. If left uncontrolled,(More)