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The diffusible factor synthase XanB2, originally identified in Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc), is highly conserved across a wide range of bacterial species, but its substrate and catalytic mechanism have not yet been investigated. Here, we show that XanB2 is a unique bifunctional chorismatase that hydrolyses chorismate, the end-product of the(More)
Pseudomonas aeruginosa uses a hierarchical quorum sensing (QS) network consisting of las, pqs and rhl regulatory elements to coordinate the expression of bacterial virulence genes. However, clinical isolates frequently contain loss-of-function mutations in the central las system. This motivated us to search for a mechanism that may functionally substitute(More)
Many bacterial pathogens produce diffusible signal factor (DSF)-type quorum sensing (QS) signals in modulation of virulence and biofilm formation. Previous work on Xanthomonas campestris showed that the RpfC/RpfG two-component system is involved in sensing and responding to DSF signals, but little is known in other microorganisms. Here we show that in(More)
Anti-melatonin monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) of high titer were prepared by coupling melatonin to bovine serum albumin with formaldehyde and by immunizing BALB/c mice with multifocal intradermal injections and by fusing high titer antibody producing spleen cells with myeloma cells of SP2/0 origin. Five MAbs were selected for further characterization as(More)
DNA damage triggers a network of signaling events that leads to cell cycle arrest or apoptosis. This DNA damage response acts as a mechanism to prevent cancer development. It has been reported that fatty acids (FAs) synthesis is increased in many human tumors while inhibition of fatty acid synthase (FASN) could suppress tumor growth. Here we report that(More)
BACKGROUND P. aeruginosa is known to cause acute cytotoxicity against various human and animal cells and tissues. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS Intriguingly, however, in this study we noticed that while a low cell density inoculum of P. aeruginosa caused severe cytotoxicity against human lung tissue cell line A549, increasing the cell density of bacterial inoculum(More)
Signaling at the plasma membrane receptors is generally terminated by some form of feedback regulation, such as endocytosis and/or degradation of the receptors. BMP-Smad1 signaling can also be attenuated by BMP-induced expression of the inhibitory Smads, which are negative regulators of Smad1 transactivation activity and/or BMP antagonists. Here, we report(More)
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