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Various aspects of infrared radiative transfer through clouds are investigated. First, three solutions to the IR radiative transfer equation are presented and assessed, each corresponding to a different approximation for the Planck function. It is shown that the differences in results between solutions with linear and exponential dependence of the Planck(More)
Piezoelectricity is a unique property of materials that permits the conversion of mechanical stimuli into electrical and vice versa. On the basis of crystal symmetry considerations, pristine carbon nitride (C3N4) in its various forms is non-piezoelectric. Here we find clear evidence via piezoresponse force microscopy and quantum mechanical calculations that(More)
Molecular ferroelectrics are highly desirable for their easy and environmentally friendly processing, light weight, and mechanical flexibility. We found that diisopropylammonium bromide (DIPAB), a molecular crystal processed from aqueous solution, is a ferroelectric with a spontaneous polarization of 23 microcoulombs per square centimeter [close to that of(More)
Linkage disequilibrium (LD) plays an important role in genomic selection and mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL). In this study, the pattern of LD and effective population size (Ne ) were investigated in Chinese beef Simmental cattle. A total of 640 bulls were genotyped with IlluminaBovinSNP50BeadChip and IlluminaBovinHDBeadChip. We estimated LD for each(More)
Hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) is responsible for the decomposition of triglycerides in adipose tissue to release free fatty acids, and it is a key rate-limiting enzyme in the regulation of adipose tissue deposition and decomposition. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between novel SNPs in the coding region of bovine HSL gene and(More)
The Tibet hybrid experiment composed of emulsion chambers, burst detectors and the Tibet-II air-shower array was done at Yangbajing (4,300m above sea level, 606 g/cm) in Tibet. For 3-year operation, we have observed 177 γ-families ( ∑ Eγ > 20 TeV) accompanying air showers with the shower size Ne > 2 × 10. Using this data set and a neural network method to(More)
Intramuscular fat (IMF) is a key parameter for evaluation of nutritional quality of beef, with its endogenous synthesis regulated by stearoyl CoA desaturase (SCD1) and diacylglycerol-acyl transferase 1 (DGAT1) genes in cattle. The object of this research was to evaluate the effect of SCD1 and DGAT1 polymorphisms on IMF trait in beef cattle and to estimate(More)
The utility of ferroelectric materials stems from the ability to nucleate and move polarized domains using an electric field. To understand the mechanisms of polarization switching, structural characterization at the nanoscale is required. We used aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy to follow the kinetics and dynamics of ferroelectric(More)
Many biological tissues are piezoelectric and pyroelectric with spontaneous polarization. Ferroelectricity, however, has not been reported in soft biological tissues yet. Using piezoresponse force microscopy, we discover that the porcine aortic walls are not only piezoelectric, but also ferroelectric, with the piezoelectric coefficient in the order of 1(More)
Applications of ferroelectric ceramics, ranging from components for sensors, memory devices, microelectromechanical systems, and energy convertors, all involve planar and rigid layouts. The brittle nature of such materials and their high-temperature processing requirements limit applications to devices that involve only very small mechanical deformations(More)