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Tractography based on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) allows visualization of white matter tracts. In this study, protocols to reconstruct eleven major white matter tracts are described. The protocols were refined by several iterations of intra- and inter-rater measurements and identification of sources of variability. Reproducibility of the established(More)
Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is an exciting new MRI modality that can reveal detailed anatomy of the white matter. DTI also allows us to approximate the 3D trajectories of major white matter bundles. By combining the identified tract coordinates with various types of MR parameter maps, such as T2 and diffusion properties, we can perform tract-specific(More)
Brain registration to a stereotaxic atlas is an effective way to report anatomic locations of interest and to perform anatomic quantification. However, existing stereotaxic atlases lack comprehensive coordinate information about white matter structures. In this paper, white matter-specific atlases in stereotaxic coordinates are introduced. As a reference(More)
It is shown that diffusion tensor MR imaging (DTI) can discretely delineate the microstructure of white matter and gray matter in embryonic and early postnatal mouse brains based on the existence and orientation of ordered structures. This order was found not only in white matter but also in the cortical plate and the periventricular zone, which are(More)
The human brain is extraordinarily complex, and yet its origin is a simple tubular structure. Characterizing its anatomy at different stages of human fetal brain development not only aids in understanding this highly ordered process but also provides clues to detecting abnormalities caused by genetic or environmental factors. During the second trimester of(More)
The brain contains more than 100 billion neurons that communicate with each other via axons for the formation of complex neural networks. The structural mapping of such networks during health and disease states is essential for understanding brain function. However, our understanding of brain structural connectivity is surprisingly limited, due in part to(More)
Tractography based on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is widely used to quantitatively analyze the status of the white matter anatomy in a tract-specific manner in many types of diseases. This approach, however, involves subjective judgment in the tract-editing process to extract only the tracts of interest. This process, usually performed by manual(More)
Morphology of the corpus callosum (CC) at the mid-sagittal level has been a target of extensive studies. However, the lack of internal structures and its polymorphism make it a challenging task to quantitatively analyze shape differences among subjects. In this paper, diffusion tensor Imaging (DTI) and tract tracing technique were applied to incorporate(More)
Brain anatomy is characterized by dramatic growth from the end of the second trimester through the neonatal stage. The characterization of normal axonal growth of the white matter tracts has not been well-documented to date and could provide important clues to understanding the extensive inhomogeneity of white matter injuries in cerebral palsy (CP)(More)
The Slit genes encode secreted ligands that regulate axon branching, commissural axon pathfinding and neuronal migration. The principal identified receptor for Slit is Robo (Roundabout in Drosophila). To investigate Slit signalling in forebrain development, we generated Robo1 knockout mice by targeted deletion of exon 5 of the Robo1 gene. Homozygote(More)