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High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with UV photodiode-array detection and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry was developed for the simultaneous analysis of caffeic acid derivatives and alkamides in the roots and extracts of Echinacea purpurea. Caffeic acid derivatives and alkamides produced very abundant peaks in the total ion(More)
BACKGROUND The Macleaya spp., including Macleaya cordata and Macleaya microcarpa, are traditional anti-virus, inflammation eliminating, and insecticide herb medicines for their isoquinoline alkaloids. They are also known as the basis of the popular natural animal food addictive in Europe. However, few studies especially at genomics level were conducted on(More)
Scopolamine, a nonselective muscarinic receptor antagonist, has been used in experimental animal models of dementia. It has been demonstrated to disrupt performances in a battery of behavioral tests. However, no attempt has been made to determine how scopolamine-treated animals would respond to a series of reward-directed instrumental learning (RDIL) tasks.(More)
Cucurbitacins are triterpenoids that confer a bitter taste in cucurbits such as cucumber, melon, watermelon, squash, and pumpkin. These compounds discourage most pests on the plant and have also been shown to have antitumor properties. With genomics and biochemistry, we identified nine cucumber genes in the pathway for biosynthesis of cucurbitacin C and(More)
A method for the analysis of alkaloids in Macleaya cordata (Willd.) R. Br. using high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS) was developed. Using protopine (PRO), allocryptopine (ALL), sanguinarine (SA), and chelerythrine (CHE) as the model components, different columns(More)
Alkaloids in Macleaya microcarpa were characterized systematically by combining liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) with the biosynthetic pathway of isoquinoline alkaloids. The mass spectral fragmentation behaviors of 16 references belonging to eight types of alkaloids that exist in the biosynthetic pathway of isoquinoline were(More)
Differentiation of secondary metabolite profiles in closely related plant species provides clues for unravelling biosynthetic pathways and regulatory circuits, an area that is still underinvestigated. Cucurbitacins, a group of bitter and highly oxygenated tetracyclic triterpenes, are mainly produced by the plant family Cucurbitaceae. These compounds have(More)
In this study, a LC-based identification strategy was proposed and off-line two-dimensional liquid chromatography was developed for the separation and identification of flavonoids from complex samples. The highly orthogonal separation system was composed of a CD column, an OEG column and an XTerra C(18) column. The CD column was employed for the first(More)
DOPA decarboxylase (DDC) is responsible for the decarboxylation of l-DOPA and related aromatic amino acids and correlates closely with a number of clinical disorders. Sanguinarine, a natural quaternary benzophenanthridine alkaloid (QBA), was reported to be inhibitor of rat DDC and possessed a different inhibitory mechanism. In this study, several natural(More)
RATIONALE Alkaloids with significant therapeutic effects are the main active constituents of Macleaya cordata, which is a perennial herb plant in the Papaveraceae family. A systematic and novel method for speculating and identifying the structures of alkaloids in M. cordata fruits by high-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass(More)