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S-Nitrosylation of Drp1 Mediates β-Amyloid-Related Mitochondrial Fission and Neuronal Injury
It is found that nitric oxide produced in response to β-amyloid protein, thought to be a key mediator of Alzheimer's disease, triggered mitochondrial fission, synaptic loss, and neuronal damage, in part via S-nitrosylation of dynamin-related protein 1 (forming SNO-Drp1).
Thioredoxin Reductase Is Irreversibly Modified by Curcumin
Modification of TrxR by curcumin provides a possible mechanistic explanation for its cancer preventive activity, shifting the enzyme from an antioxidant to a prooxidant.
S-nitrosylation of peroxiredoxin 2 promotes oxidative stress-induced neuronal cell death in Parkinson's disease
- Jianguo Fang, Tomohiro Nakamura, D. Cho, Z. Gu, S. Lipton
- BiologyProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
- 20 November 2007
It is reported that Prx2 is S-nitrosylated by reaction with nitric oxide at two critical cysteine residues, preventing its reaction with peroxides, providing a direct link between nitrosative/oxidative stress and neurodegenerative disorders such as PD.
Inhibition of Mammalian thioredoxin reductase by some flavonoids: implications for myricetin and quercetin anticancer activity.
- Jun Lu, L. Papp, Jianguo Fang, S. Rodríguez-Nieto, B. Zhivotovsky, A. Holmgren
- Biology, ChemistryCancer research
- 15 April 2006
Myricetin and quercetin were found to have strong inhibitory effects on mammalian TrxRs with IC50 values of 0.62 and 0.97 micromol/L, respectively and may be due to inhibition of TrxR, consequently inducing cell death.
Targeting the Thioredoxin System for Cancer Therapy.
Shikonin targets cytosolic thioredoxin reductase to induce ROS-mediated apoptosis in human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells.
Inhibition of thioredoxin and thioredoxin reductase by 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal in vitro and in vivo.
Inhibition of both TrxR and Trx by HNE provides a possibly novel mechanism for explanation of its cytotoxic effect and signaling activity, as well as the further damage indirectly caused under oxidative stress conditions.
Xanthohumol, a polyphenol chalcone present in hops, activating Nrf2 enzymes to confer protection against oxidative damage in PC12 cells.
- Juan Yao, Baoxin Zhang, Chunpo Ge, Shoujiao Peng, Jianguo Fang
- BiologyJournal of agricultural and food chemistry
- 28 January 2015
It is demonstrated that Xn is a novel small-molecule activator of Nrf2 in neuronal cells and suggested that XN might be a potential candidate for the prevention of neurodegenerative disorders.
Nrf2: a dark horse in Alzheimer's disease treatment
Synthesis of xanthohumol analogues and discovery of potent thioredoxin reductase inhibitor as potential anticancer agent.
- Baoxin Zhang, Dongzhu Duan, Jianguo Fang
- Biology, ChemistryJournal of medicinal chemistry
- 6 February 2015
Structural-activity relationship study indicates that the prenyl group is not necessary for cytotoxicity, and introducing electron-withdrawing group, especially on the meta-position, is favored, and methylation of the phenoxyl groups generally improves the potency.