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IL-10 production by Th17 cells is critical for limiting autoimmunity and inflammatory responses. Gene array analysis on Stat6 and T-bet double-deficient Th17 cells identified the Th2 transcription factor c-Maf to be synergistically up-regulated by IL-6 plus TGFbeta and associated with Th17 IL-10 production. Both c-Maf and IL-10 induction during Th17(More)
CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells migrate into both inflammatory sites and draining lymph nodes (LNs) during an immune response, and have unique and overlaping functions in each location. Current studies suggest that Treg cells in draining LNs and inflamatory sites may not simply be a division of labor, but rather Treg cells migrate in a(More)
BACKGROUND Lymphatics are important for their conduit functions of transporting antigen, immune cells, and inflammatory mediators to draining lymph nodes and to the general circulation. Lymphangiogenesis is involved in many pathologic processes; however, the roles for lymphatic responses in transplantation have not been thoroughly investigated. METHODS(More)
Th1 and Th17 cells are crucial in immune regulation and autoimmune disease development. By adding Stat6 deficiency to T-bet deficiency, and thus negating effects from elevated levels of IL-4/Stat6/GATA3 Th2 signals in T-bet-deficient cells, we investigated the signals important for Th1 and Th17 cell differentiation and their role in colitis development. The(More)
One of the main unresolved questions in solid organ transplantation is how to establish indefinite graft survival that is free from long-term treatment with immunosuppressive drugs and chronic rejection (i.e., the establishment of tolerance). The failure to achieve this goal may be related to the difficulty in identifying the phenotype and function of the(More)
Lymphangiogenesis is a common phenomenon observed during inflammation and engraftment of transplants, but its precise role in the immune response and underlying mechanisms of regulation remain poorly defined. Here we showed that in response to injury and autoimmunity, lymphangiogenesis occurred around islets and played a key role in the islet inflammation(More)
We have investigated the in vivo efficacy of Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B (SEB) coupled to tumor-specific anti-idiotypic antibody in redirecting T cell effector activity to the growth inhibition of B lymphoma 38C13. Incubation of 38C13 lymphoma cells with syngeneic C3H/He splenic cells and SEB-anti-Id conjugate was associated with between 80 and 100%(More)
Regulatory T cells (Treg) are important in maintaining immune homeostasis and in regulating a variety of immune responses, making them attractive targets for modulating immune-related diseases. Success in using induction or transfer of Treg in mice to mediate transplant tolerance suggests Treg-based therapies as mechanisms of long-term drug-free transplant(More)
Dendritic cells (DC) play important roles in both tolerance and immunity to β cells in type 1 diabetes. How and why DC can have diverse and opposing functions in islets remains elusive. To answer these questions, islet DC subsets and their specialized functions were characterized. Under both homeostatic and inflammatory conditions, there were two main(More)
Th17 play a central role in autoimmune inflammatory responses. Th1 are also necessary for autoimmune disease development. The interplay of Th1 signals and how they coordinate with Th17 during inflammatory disease pathogenesis are incompletely understood. In this study, by adding Stat4 deficiency to Stat6/T-bet double knockout, we further dissected the role(More)