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The effects of long-term alcohol consumption on the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) pathway and N-methyl-D-aspartate-type glutamate receptor 1 (GluN1) subunits in the mesocorticolimbic system remain unclear. In the present study, rats were allowed to consume 6% (v/v) alcohol solution for 28 consecutive days. Locomotor activity and behavioral signs(More)
Histone acetylation/deacetylation is a crucial mechanism in memory formation and drug addiction. There is evidence suggesting that histone H3 acetylation may contribute to the long-term neural and behavioral responses to addictive drugs. In addition, the basolateral amygdala (BLA) is critically involved in the formation of cue-associated memories. However,(More)
Previous studies suggest that hippocampal CA1, CA3, and DG regions may have distinct roles in alcohol dependence. Extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) and Ca(2+)/calmodulin dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) have been shown to contribute to the molecular mechanism underlying drug dependence and relapse, and there may be an interaction between the(More)
Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) from 1-day chicken brain was enriched over 2000-fold by affinity chromatography using N-methylacridinium-Sepharose. This preparation was used to prepare monoclonal antibodies (mAb) directed against AChE, of which two were extensively characterised for further application. Both mAbs bound to the enzyme from the chicken with high(More)
Nearly one-quarter of all avian species is either threatened or nearly threatened. Of these, 73 species are currently being rescued from going extinct in wildlife sanctuaries. One of the previously most critically-endangered is the crested ibis, Nipponia nippon. Once widespread across North-East Asia, by 1981 only seven individuals from two breeding pairs(More)
The fast-twitch posterior latissimus dorsi muscle of normal and genetically dystrophic chickens was subjected to continuous indirect electrical stimulation at 10 Hz for periods of 4-8 weeks. To sustain this in vivo nerve stimulation an internally implantable miniature stimulator device was designed. This regime of stimulation caused complete fatigue of the(More)
Molecular forms of acetylcholinesterase and pseudocholinesterase were analyzed directly in the micro-dissected individual endplates of a slow-tonic chicken muscle. The major form in the endplate is the L2(6.5 S) form, while the collagen-tailed H2c (20 S) form, normally considered to be the synaptic form, is a very minor component, in contrast to its(More)
BACKGROUND Chronic abuse of heroin leads to long-lasting and complicated cognitive impairment. Dopamine receptors are critically involved in the impulsive drug-driven behavior and the altered attention, processing speed, and mental flexibility that are associated with higher relapse rates. However, the effects of the different dopamine receptors and their(More)
Ezetimibe is a potent inhibitor of cholesterol absorption by enterocytes. Although ezetimibe minimally affects the absorption of triglyceride, it is unknown whether ezetimibe affects the secretion of the incretin hormones glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). It has been shown that ezetimibe-treated mice are(More)
The 'heavy', collagen-tailed form of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), having a s(0)20,w of 16S in mammals, occurs at vertebrate muscle endplates and has been widely regarded as a marker of neuronal influence on muscle in vivo. However, an interesting exception has been described by Bacou et al., in a previous report in Nature. They found, in a slow-twitch(More)