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The effects of long-term alcohol consumption on the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) pathway and N-methyl-D-aspartate-type glutamate receptor 1 (GluN1) subunits in the mesocorticolimbic system remain unclear. In the present study, rats were allowed to consume 6% (v/v) alcohol solution for 28 consecutive days. Locomotor activity and behavioral signs(More)
Histone acetylation/deacetylation is a crucial mechanism in memory formation and drug addiction. There is evidence suggesting that histone H3 acetylation may contribute to the long-term neural and behavioral responses to addictive drugs. In addition, the basolateral amygdala (BLA) is critically involved in the formation of cue-associated memories. However,(More)
Previous studies suggest that hippocampal CA1, CA3, and DG regions may have distinct roles in alcohol dependence. Extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) and Ca(2+)/calmodulin dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) have been shown to contribute to the molecular mechanism underlying drug dependence and relapse, and there may be an interaction between the(More)
Nearly one-quarter of all avian species is either threatened or nearly threatened. Of these, 73 species are currently being rescued from going extinct in wildlife sanctuaries. One of the previously most critically-endangered is the crested ibis, Nipponia nippon. Once widespread across North-East Asia, by 1981 only seven individuals from two breeding pairs(More)
Pain is a complex and subjective experience that involves not only the transduction of noxious stimuli by nociceptive fibers, but also the cognitive and emotional processing by the brain. Previous studies on the transmission of nociception suggest that the activation of mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system plays an important role in mediating the suppression of(More)
Previous studies suggest that the nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh) and core (AcbC) regions may have distinct roles in ethanol consumption. N-Methyl-d-aspartate receptor 1 (NMDAR1), Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) have been demonstrated to contribute to and possibly interact in the(More)
Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder that is likely to be strongly determined by genetic factors. To identify markers of disks, large homolog 2 (DLG2), FAT atypical cadherin 3 (FAT3), kinectin1 (KTN1), deleted in colorectal carcinoma (DCC), and glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β) that contribute to the genetic susceptibility to schizophrenia, we(More)
BACKGROUND Chronic abuse of heroin leads to long-lasting and complicated cognitive impairment. Dopamine receptors are critically involved in the impulsive drug-driven behavior and the altered attention, processing speed, and mental flexibility that are associated with higher relapse rates. However, the effects of the different dopamine receptors and their(More)
Autism susceptibility candidate 2 (AUTS2) is a gene associated with autism and mental retardation. Recent studies have suggested an association of the AUTS2 gene with heroin dependence, and reduced AUTS2 gene expression may confer increased susceptibility to heroin dependence. However, the functional role of the AUTS2 protein in regulating enduring(More)