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Bacterial DNA (bDNA) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) are potent activators of immune cells such as monocytes and macrophages, which contribute to systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and sepsis. Unfortunately, many experimental inflammatory antagonist-based therapies have failed in sepsis trials, and currently there is only one adjuvant therapy in(More)
OBJECTIVES Occasionally, we found that artesunate enhanced the antibacterial effects of antibiotics in vitro. Therefore, the enhancement of various β-lactam antibiotics by artesunate against Escherichia coli and the possible mechanism were investigated in the present study. METHODS Antibacterial effects were observed using the serial 2-fold dilution(More)
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the principal component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, stimulates various cell types to release numerous proinflammatory mediators such as TNF-alpha, IL-6 and IL-12, which may damage cells and lead to organ injury, even sepsis and septic shock. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) has been identified as the receptor(More)
Aptamers against inactive Vibrio alginolyticus were selected from an 82-nt ssDNA random library by systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment. After 15 rounds of selection, the final pool of aptamers was highly specific for inactivated V. alginolyticus and had a dissociation constant of 27.5 ± 9.2 nM. Using these aptamers and PCR, V.(More)
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS/endotoxin) is a key pathogen recognition molecule for sepsis. Currently, one of the therapeutic approaches for severe sepsis is focusing on the neutralization of LPS, and clinical trials have shown a lot of traditional Chinese herbs possess anti-sepsis function. Herein, to elucidate the bioactive components of traditional Chinese(More)
Gram-positive bacteria have become the most common organisms responsible for the development of sepsis. Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is the major gram-positive pathogen in both community-acquired and nosocomial infections. The Mortality associated with nosocomial infections caused by S. aureus may vary but are generally high. In the present study, we(More)
Radiotherapy is a standard treatment for glioma patient with or without surgery; radiosensitizer can increase tumor sensitivity for radiotherapy. Herein, a synthetic oligodeoxynucleotide containing unmethylated CpG dinucleotides (CpG ODN107) as a radiosensitizer was investigated in vitro and in vivo, and the possible mechanisms were studied in vitro. In the(More)
In the present study artemisinin (ART) was found to have potent anti-inflammatory effects in animal models of sepsis induced by CpG-containing oligodeoxy-nucleotides (CpG ODN), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), heat-killed Escherichia coli 35218 or live E. coli. Furthermore, we found that ART protected mice from a lethal challenge by CpG ODN, LPS, or heat-killed E.(More)
Sepsis induced by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has worse outcome because of multiresistance to a large group of antibiotics, which may lead to death from septic shock. In the present study, we firstly found that artesunate in combination with oxacillin was capable of protecting mice challenged with live MRSA WHO-2 (WHO-2) and the(More)
Innate immunity is the first line of defense in human beings against pathogen infection; monocytes/macrophages are the primary cells of the innate immune system. Recently, macrophages/monocytes have been discovered to participate in LPS clearance, and the clearance efficiency determines the magnitude of the inflammatory response and subsequent organ injury.(More)