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The Lombard effect, an involuntary rise in call amplitude in response to masking ambient noise, represents one of the most efficient mechanisms to optimize signal-to-noise ratio. The Lombard effect occurs in birds and mammals, including humans, and is often associated with several other vocal changes, such as call frequency and duration. Most studies,(More)
Epigenetic modifications are considered to have an important role in evolution. DNA methylation is one of the best studied epigenetic mechanisms and methylation variability is crucial for promoting phenotypic diversification of organisms in response to environmental variation. A critical first step in the assessment of the potential role of epigenetic(More)
To the Editor: Emerging infectious diseases have caused catastrophic declines in wildlife populations, and the introductions of many pathogen have been linked to increases in global trade and travel (1). Mapping the distribution of pathogens is necessary to identify species and populations at risk and identify sources of pathogen spillover and introduction.(More)
BACKGROUND It is well known that exposure to severe stress increases the risk for developing mood disorders. However, most chronic stress models in rodents involve at least some form of physically experiencing traumatic events. METHODS This study assessed the effects of a novel social stress paradigm that is insulated from the effects of physical stress.(More)
Currently there are no effective therapies for the treatment of metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Here, we conducted a retrospective study of 161 patients to evaluate the therapeutic effects of combining cryosurgery, chemotherapy and dendritic cell-activated cytokine-induced killer cells (DC-CIK) immunotherapy. The overall survival (OS) after(More)
A steady state model was developed for evaluating the sulfur cycle based SANI(®) process. The model comprises: 1) a COD-based anaerobic hydrolysis kinetics model to determine removal of biodegradable COD and sulfate under different hydraulic retention time (HRT) and sludge retention time (SRT), 2) an element (C, H, O, N, P, S), COD and charge mass balanced(More)
Global climatic oscillations, glaciation cycles and the unique geographic topology of China have profoundly influenced species population distributions. In most species, contemporary distributions of populations cannot be fully understood, except in a historical context. Complex patterns of Pleistocene glaciations, as well as other physiographic changes(More)
BACKGROUND The prognostic significance of p16 promoter hypermethylation in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is still controversial. This analysis presents pooled estimates of the association to better elucidate whether p16 methylation has a prognostic role in NSCLC. METHODS Relevant studies were identified by searching PubMed, Embase and(More)
Based on mark-recapture data, we studied the postnatal development of morphological features and vocalization of the pomona leaf-nosed bat (Hipposideros pomona). Morphological changes indicated that body mass and length of forearm followed a linear pattern of growth until 13 days of age at mean growth rates of 0.14 g/day and 1.08 mm/day, respectively, and(More)
Predicting species' fates following the introduction of a novel pathogen is a significant and growing problem in conservation. Comparing disease dynamics between introduced and endemic regions can offer insight into which naive hosts will persist or go extinct, with disease acting as a filter on host communities. We examined four hypothesized mechanisms for(More)